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Humm-Wadsworth Temperament Scale

humm and Wadsworth BrainpunditsReading Time: 3 minutes

Hum Wadsworth scale is a Temperament scale developed way back in 1935. The scale was constructed by DG Humm and GW Wadsworth. Not to forget that they had built their work on research of Rosanaoff (1927).

The Temperament scale was constructed to assess job performance of individuals. The idea was that temperament was the single most important determinant in industrial utility of labor. Above all temperament served as a indicator which determined one’s future job performance and job fit.

Through Humm Scale one could also make population comparisons. Certainly Temperament and its sub-components were considered sufficient enough to provide assessment of enough information on labor performance. Subsequently, Humm scale contained 300+ items which made the test very comprehensive and elaborate.

Temperament is a usual emotional response to a stimuli (from Merriam Webster). Naturally, emotions are what drives temperament. Subsequently a person’s temperament is a primary factor which helps in determining future work performance.  Therefore by measuring the temperament one could decipher which job roles one is suited for.

 

The scale assessed and categorized stereotypical behavior into 7 types. So these are :

 

  • Normal

  • Hustler

  • Mover

  • Double Checker

  • Artist

  • Politician

  • Engineer

 

 

Although, the categories were originally called Normal, Hyteriod (Hustler), Cycloid manic, Cycloid depressive, Schizoid autistic, Schizoid paranoid, Epileptoid. Certainly, such labels due to obvious reasons were replace/d.

Humm And Wadsworth temperament scale categories

Personality type Main Driver Dominant Traits
Normal Self Mastery, Law Abiding, Conservative, Highly adaptable to different social groups, desire to conform, better control over emotions
Hustler Self Interest Material success is important, Tact and diplomacy, Selfish, Good at negotiations
Mover Enthusiastic (High energy) Extroverted, Highly social, Cheerful, Hopefulness, Multi-tasking
Double Checker Similar to Mover, (High energy) Negativity Cautious, Self-critical, Pessimistic, Empathetic and prone to stress and anxiety
Artist Introspective Shy, Reflective, Sensitive, Self-consciousness, Imaginative, Creative, Socially reserved
Politician Ego Competitive, Argumentative, Status, Prestige and Power sensitive, Ambitious
Engineer Fastidious Detail-oriented, Objective, Systematic, Precise, Meticulous, Task Driven

 

Obviously, Humms – Wadsworth Scale cannot be compared to Big Five Personality test. But Humm was able to prove the validity of their test to +0.72 between test results and ability to predict job performance. In addition, Humm was the person who constructed the test worked on theoretical aspect of it and Wadsworth was the statistician.

Today, top companies employ psychometric tests for recruiting and quality purposes. These tests help in finding suitable from people of the same educational achievement by assessing the personality with cognition.   In conclusion career assessment tests or psychometric tests helps reduce human biases to provide solutions when it comes to finding a suitable match for job. Since, it is tougher to assess personality of individuals just by interviewing.

read also Open schooling Experience

(If you like please share and comment) Thank you.

 

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9 Sure Signs of Intelligent people

Brainpundits Signs of intelligenceReading Time: 4 minutes

9 Sure signs of intelligent people

Ever wondered why some people are more intelligent than others. It has been argued for long that intelligence is inheritable. That is to say it is in your genes. However, intelligence is much more complex. To state it modestly, Intelligence is a result of both genes and environment.  Sure signs of intelligence are accepted after years of research and studies which found correlation between traits and cognition. 

Early 1900s, Alfred Binet had formulated a standard test to test children in schools of France. This test was designed to assess those who were struggling with curriculum that was taught in school and develop measures to improve their faculties. Later, after some changes the test was re-designed in Stanford as IQ test which sought to determine their mental age (Intelligence level corresponding to their age).

Intelligence has a lot to do with how we behave, essentially our traits and characteristics. It shapes our world view and our general conduct or behavior. 

Intelligence is an important component of our personality. Naturally, it is also an important component of personality. So, here are 9 sure signs that an intelligent individual definitely possess.

  • Intelligent people are Open Minded.

Open minded

Being broad minded implies that you are open to other perspectives and opinions. Open mindedness means a person is open to opinions and values which challenges their own beliefs and values. Such people score high on aptitude tests. 

  • They are adaptable.

Adaptability

Contrary to popular belief, intelligent people can thrive in any given situation. This seems true when one recalls Social Darwinism. People with high intelligence will find ways to retain in situations which may pose a challenge.

  • Individualism.

Individualism

Intelligent people prefer their own company rather than need to socialize. Recent research has suggested that people with high intelligence tend to derive less satisfaction from socializing. This could mean they have few people they confide in.

  • Temperance seems to be virtue of intelligent.

Intelligent people have good command over themselves. They exercise in self control over their impulses. Research shows link between the two. The famous Marshmallow test is one that proves it. 

  • Good with empathy.

Empathy

Intelligent people are good in understanding experiences of others. They have high emotional intelligence. The intelligent people are sensitive to other people’s needs and expression.

  • Voracious Readers.

Voracious reader

Intelligent people love to read. The have quenchless thirst to know whatever there is in this world. They will read whatever comes their way. They educate themselves on numerous topics. 

  • Intelligent people have a good sense of humor.

Sarcasm

Sarcasm could be a sign of intelligence. Highly intelligent people enjoy dark humor. Austrian study found that people with low aggression were more open and appreciating to dark humor. 

  • Tendency to modestly estimate themselves when it comes to performance.

Modest

Intelligent people are generally modest when it comes to assessing their abilities and expressing their confidence over a skill. Modesty is a universally accepted and appreciated trait. Being modest helps in getting through situation by avoiding conflicts. 

  •  High self awareness.

Self aware

Intelligence person knows just how much of intelligence is there in them. The people who are intelligent know their limits when comes to their intelligence. They know exactly to what extent they are good at and what are their shortcomings. This also means they very well self aware.

So, here were 9 sure signs of intelligent behavior or people.

Read also What is data science ?

Good luck!!!

 

 

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Open Schooling Experience (Passing 12th standard)

open schoolingReading Time: 3 minutes

Open schooling experience is a quite different form regular schooling. Where regular schooling is an ongoing interaction with peers, teachers, and others, open schooling is usually devoid of it. On the upside you have ample amount of time to study and work on yourself if you choose open schooling.

Open schooling in India is more of a business than an institutionalized form of learning. They serve an alternative to many especially those who either can’t afford regular due to other responsibilities or those who are looking to complete their minimum qualifications.

I would be sharing an experience of a known staff who had passed 12th standard from NIOS open schooling. These experiences are of the process and progression not learning. Hence, it will shed light on how open schooling functions, its structural and functional aspects. You may not find these details on any site but only from those who are or have experienced it.

NIOS is an open learning system introduced in roughly in the early 90s. The NIOS has designed its syllabus in accordance to CBSE. One most important point not to be missed is that NIOS provides several chances to clear secondary and senior secondary (12th std.) exams.

NIOS provides an opportunity to complete formal schooling process and attain desirable education level upto 12th standard.

 

So, to come back to the experiences of the individual. For privacy issues and other concerns. I would refer the individual as Mr X.

But to give an introduction about the process which students of NIOS have to opt for subjects in 10th and 12th standard. They go through assignments and final exams similar to CBSE. Also they are allotted a school which is their study center in which much of their academic progress is managed like submission of assignments. The students are also to report to their regional center which manages administrative aspects. Exams are conducted elsewhere in schools which are selected to conduct of final exams.

Experience of Mr. X,

Of submitting assignments, at study centers there were many who were asking for money in exchange for assignments promising good marks. However, upon submitting those already made assignments marks fetched were poor or sub-optimal. So, its better to make you own assignments.

Of giving practicals,

Did not gave it.

Of giving final exams,

He was upset over the fact that in some papers was not allowed to cheat. He says that some teachers did permit and others were not so permissive.

Of authorities,

He was genuinely frustrated over matters concerning authorities misplacing his degrees. He had to give bribe to submit assignments, get admit cards and even get his degree from NIOS. The bribes were from few thousand rupees to buying samosas for authorities concerned. But in his opinion no one settled for less than 500 rupees. It was the final amount of bribe which was settled after much pleading and begging his case.

A frustrating experience for Mr X as he had to run many many trips just to get certificates from the concerned authorities.

However, this is not even the problem.

In my opinion the problem is with admin authorities who at every point are looking to extract some money from Mr. X. I do not think Mr. X was an ideal student as he seemed to value all the immoral behavior of authorities. Off course what good is any of us then, when we are at mercy of others. To pass a judgement would be foolish. Thinking about it again it could also be his helplessness dealing with authorities.

The people in concerned places instead of being fair had made sure that their pockets are stashed with bribe money. Education was ignored and formality of getting a degree was valued. What are we teaching our generation and that which is going to succeed. Instead of learning we are teaching people to shrewd, ignorant and immoral. We are raising people the wrong way. It devalues education and makes promotes poor values.

Soon this will reflect collectively in our nation.

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Top Unconventional careers in Designing

Unconventional Design careersReading Time: 4 minutes

A career in designing is for those who are creative and are looking for not just jobs but a sense of fulfillment. Designing itself categorize as Unconventional career choice for many. A Career in design in our country is less thought off or sought. Precisely, because it was not even thought as a career. However, times are changing designing is competing with conventional careers and in some cases offering a good salary with ease of working. 

If you have knack of picking up or seeing creativity in and around your environment. Then you should forge a career ahead in the designing. Many people when it comes to designing are either associated with interior designing or fashion designing. However, there are many careers in designing some being unconventional and usually never thought off. 

The article will be covering those fields of designing, other than the conventional which are footwear, fashion and interior designing.

Top Unconventional careers in designing

 

  • Become a children’s story book or comic book illustrator,

A sub field of graphic designing, here you are required to produce illustrations particularly for children up  to primary level. So, you have to keep in mind factors such as target group requirement, ease of understanding and many suitability. 

You would be creating workbooks and comic illustrations. Some of the examples would be fables and parables. These would consist of short stories with vivid drawings and art works. 

 

  • UI design,

UI (User Interface) designer is the person who is in charge of making client’s user interface experience a wonderful one. In other words they help in making a website or an app experience better. A user/ client visiting website might navigate from page to page. UI designer is responsible for making navigation easier. 

The good UI design would mean color, spacing of buttons, design elements, and pattern is good. Usually to acquire this skill one would have to go through a specialization course in UI design.

Can try courses from:

  1. Udemy 
  2. eDX

 

 

  • Video Game Artists,

If you love video games and designing then this is the career you should aim for. Video Game artists are responsible for aesthetics, designing/drawing characters and environment, colors, shapes and themes etc. They use software and applications to create 3D art or animations

They use pencil, ink and oil paint to create illustrations for artwork. In many cases use software to create 3D images. Above all you should have a good understanding of characters, story line, and demand.

 

  • Jewelry design,

A profession in Jewelry design would require one to work with precious stones, diamonds and gems. A Jewelry designer creates designs which help in catering to the demand of the rich. That is to say a jewelry designer creates design. Usually pendants, necklaces, earrings, and other jewelry.

A person would require the understanding of texture, pattern, chemical composition of stones, shafting and other relevant things which are required. 

In addition such jobs require a course and certifications in Jewelry design

 

 

  • Logo designer,

Bicycle shop logo design vector

In the age of start ups, many companies are in requirement of marketing their product. For marketing, one of the most important tasks is to have Logo, logo helps in creating brand imaging and marketing. In addition logo helps in identification of company and its products

Many companies hire Logo designers for making and designing their logos. Subsequently, Logos are usually protected by trademarks. This essentially means that every company shall have unique logo. 

 

 

  • Industrial designing,

As the name suggests it pertains to designing of Industrial products. These products require an understanding of concept, creating prototypes, safety and appearance. Industrial designers work on creating medical equipment to home appliances to computers and smartphones. Basically they are a necessary requirement in manufacturing process.

Such jobs are part of technical jobs pays handsomely in many cases. Most importantly, it requires the understanding of machine drawing. 

 

So, here were some unconventional jobs in designing field. 

Goodluck !!!

 

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Career Options in Language courses

Career in language coursesReading Time: 5 minutes

All students upon passing 12th standard apply for colleges for graduation. Many of us due to want of getting a better college apply for courses which may not be our first choices. Career in language courses are for those who are interested in knowing cultures other than their own. They essentially bridge gap between different entities such as groups, states, nations. 

As most people would agree, languages courses barring few, major chunk of language courses are relatively not that popular when it comes to career options. This is not true. There exist an ocean of opportunities, point is one has to look beyond horizons. But, before one dwells into career options in language courses. One should know difference between language and dialect. Simplistically, dialect evolves from on or maybe more languages. Hence, dialects are subsets of languages.

Broadly, language courses for graduation and post graduation can be divided into 2

  1. Indian languages
  2. Foreign languages

 

Admission to these courses is conventionally decided by cut offs. Some may provide for entrance test. For example, CATE of Delhi University which was for undergraduate program in English. However, Ministry of Human resource development has scrapped it. So you will not expect it this year (2019) on wards.

These program courses are also available for as part time courses and short term courses. 

 

Some of the career avenues one can take after graduation/certification in Language courses, 

  • Language Translator or Interpreter ,

As an interpreter you get to translate or interpret languages. You are employed in embassy or govt office for translation works. You would assist foreign dignitaries in conferences, summits and Bilateral meetings. Especially if you opt for foreign languages you can easily get jobs here.

Earn modestly about 25000 INR monthly

 

  • Lectureship,

You can apply for Lectureship in colleges. It pays well and is a respectable career. You get to start as assistant professor in college. Some colleges may take you on ad hoc basis or contractual. 

Best way to become a lecturer is to clear NTA (National Testing Agency) conducted UGC exam which provides for Certification for Lectureship (Assistant professor). Then one can apply to various colleges for teaching post.

Earning is 50,000 – 60,000 INR monthly

 

 

  • Linguistic research,

Illustration of document icon

Can go for research in your language course. There are scholarships given for research work. Usually a modest amount is given from colleges or institution funding your research work with accommodation.

UGC provides scholarships for about 84 subjects. These are JRF (Junior Research Fellow) scholarships, which enables a research grant of about 28,500 (30k) monthly. One has to clear-cut off of JRF which is higher than Assistant professor’s cut off. Students who have opted for classical and regional languages of India have greatly benefited . 

Sahitya academy (National academy of letters) provides for awards and scholarships for scholars and researchers in many Indian languages.

 

 

  • Translation of historical works,

In such jobs,  a person who is proficient in a language is employed for translation of important and historical. Such type of work requires good command over language in both. You have to have good knowledge of script/s. Your translated works are then published under various heads.

However, most of the work is usually done by researchers and proficient individuals of the field.

Earning are usually higher comparable and even more than lectureship.

 

 

  • Translation jobs in Businesses,

Many companies have expanded. These companies are registering their presence globally. Since many are establishing themselves on digital platform. Much of work is required to translate from foreign languages into natives. Some companies require one to translate dictionaries for work. Example Arabic to English.

Hence, many companies require individuals with specified criteria. These jobs are of fixed term and are usually offered to people who work as freelance workers.

Job salary is roughly around 25,000 INR and above, monthly.

 

  • School teacher,

Many schools, including both private and govt schools provide for teaching positions in foreign and regional languages. School teaching jobs are modest paying and time efficient jobs. It provides for good amount of time for leisure activities. 

In many schools there is the requirement of French, German, Punjabi, Sanskrit and many others languages. A graduation in any of the languages can help get a job here. Competition is relatively easier than Lectureship and Research.

Can also provide tuitions and work in institutions like Max Mueller bhavan (for German).

Salary can be anywhere between 30,000 INR – 40,000 INR.

 

  • Jobs in embassies both Indian and abroad

Managing information and day-to-day office related work is part of your work profile. You are also taught public relations as you would be required to work with various types of persons. 

Jobs in embassies are rated well and regularized. They tend to offer more money than conventional jobs in this field. You would also get opportunity to go abroad if required.

Salary in variable but offerings are good. Starts from roughly 35,000 INR monthly.

 

These were some of the career options which can help you land a job if you have done language courses. There are other fields such as journalism (national or regional), public relations and mass communication (perhaps for post graduation or certifications) if you are language courses student.

Read also Career in writing

Goodluck !!!

 

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Best Data Science Certifications in India

Data Science CertificationsReading Time: 3 minutes

Data Science certifications in India are most sought after certifications today. Most organisations are becoming more and more inclined in using Data Science. Data Science is being used everywhere to make business  more profitable and understanding consumer.

The Data Science is categorized with IOT (Internet of things), Machine Learning, Deep Learning, AI (Artificial Intelligence) and Automation as the jobs of the future WEF Report 2018. However, one must know that Data is not just kept somewhere in a server but it is used to make companies much more efficient. Naturally, data science can be used to make the company more efficient and productive. Certainly, helps in cost cutting and rationalizing expenditure, making it more targeted.

 

To know more about Data Science read here

India is developing its market in the field of Data Science. Analytics India magazine reported that India contributed to 6% of job openings in Analytics and Data Science around the world. In other words it is roughly equal to the unemployment rate that we are going through. Also, it reports that there are about 97,000 jobs available for Data Science and Analytics. Most Importantly, Data Science jobs offer handsome earnings of about 12-15 lakh per annum. To sum up its a good bet career wise.

 

If you are looking to get certified in this field then here are some options that you should try,

 

Jigsaw Academy is one of the key institutions which provides Analytics and Data Science certification programs in India. Their Offices are in Delhi, Hyderabad and Bangalore.

In India this course is ranked second. It is one top courses available on Data Science.

Time Duration – 10 months

Fees – 3.65 lakhs + taxes (INR)

 

 

Provides an exclusive certification program on Data Science. Further it is an online program. The certification is provided by IBM and offers an online support.

Time Duration –  6 months

Fees – 48,000 +taxes (INR)

 

 

Upgrad seeks to provide Industry relevant programs for in collaboration with Educational Institutes and Industries.

Formed only recently in 2015, provides a range of courses. The above stated course is one of its best courses where on completion one is provided certification from IITB.

Time Duration – 11 months

Fees – 2.85 Lakh (INR)

 

Online certification program which provides learning in data science. Most importantly it Covers industry relevant content helping in building skills relevant in getting jobs. Moreover, it covers topics from Java to big data touching all relevant topics of data science.

Time duration : 6 months

Fees : 1,00,000 INR

 

 

You are provided certification in Data Science and Big data. The course curriculum gives provides industry relevant skills. Most importantly,  IMT Ghaziabad provides alumnus status on completion.

Provides learning experience on tools such as R, Spark, Apache etc.

Time Duration : 6 months

Fees : 80,000 + Taxes

So, here were top data science certifications in India

Good luck !!!

 

 

 

 

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Hot career: Data Science, What is it, actually ?

Reading Time: 3 minutes

I am sure you have heard this before that data is the new oil. Data is used by governments to provide better services to its citizens. The private sector is already using it for product analysis, consumer behavior, patterns and insights that help uncover details that make a company more efficient and targeted.

What is data science ?

Data Science, if you take it literally you are in the right direction. It refers to Science of data. To put it in layman terms it is scientific study of data. Now, this would involve statistics and math. Data is voluminous and Gargantuan. Hence we need statistics to cut short and make sense of it.

The word data science has been there around half a century. In past 7 years, it has gained much popularity owing to shift in business process and sophistication. Too late to say but the world has gone digital. We leave our digital footprint everywhere we go. Everything we do on digital landscape gets recorded somewhere in digitally.

Mountains of data are stored in servers located somewhere. The data is collected and processed to discover patterns which is called data mining. Data Science goes many steps ahead and uses Mining, Predictive Visualization, AI (artificial intelligence), Visualization, Math and Statistics.

Components of data science 

Ideally, a Data Scientist should be good when it comes to being analytical.

  • They should be good with numbers, computer science and statistics.
  • Data Scientists are essentially problem solvers of any business organisation.
  • They offer insights and solutions to company to make it profitable or cost effective. (How, you may wonder but that’s later in the article)

 

Much of the work of Data scientist is that of a researcher. Therefore a data scientist would take input in the form issues/problems of an organisation and collect data both in structured and unstructured form. However, collecting data in unstructured form poses a challenge. The unstructured data is any data which is induced through us (humans) for example it can be our comments on social media to our online shopping behavior.

A diagrammatic representation of components :

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   credits kisspng

It is divided into various levels where input is categorized as taking a problem and designing a hypothesis. The next level involves collecting data which graduates to upper level increasing the role analysis and research. A diagram below shows requirement and level of sophistication when it comes to Data science.

As you can see that data scientist work conforms to Analytics and Testing/experimentation. For structuring ‘data’ engineers are required. Obviously these data engineers are computer science/IT engineers. Notice that machine learning and AI are performed ML engineers and Research scientists. Most importantly, this forms the pyramid of data science.

A career here is very effective in terms of being a fruitful career option. In context of India in terms of demand there are not many who have this skill or certification. Hence, Data Science’s prospects shines brightest as whole world has gone digital and is increasingly becoming automated. Consequently increasing dominance of computer science and data enormously.

Data Science as highlighted by Mckinsey’s report had outlined Deficit in Data Analyst jobs pointing towards a demand in 2011. WEF(World Economic Forum) mentions it as dominant career in its Future of Jobs report 2018. Naturally then a career in data science is set to be a hot career of the future.

For a detailed or comprehensive understanding refer this

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Memory decoded part 1 : Why do we forget?

Memory decodedReading Time: 4 minutes

Ever felt a little deceived by yourself when giving a test and having to forget a topic which you had studied thoroughly.One feels helpless especially during these times. Memory is also quite complex to fully understand and grasp. But, the upside is research has helped making it easier. This means we know that why learning, forgetting or memorizing happens.

Even speaking scientifically there are many grey areas which still require adequate clarity over the matter. Research in memory has led to evolving methods to study rather efficiently, help treat Amnesia, Alzheimer, Parkinson and Training. 

When we talk of memory we broadly concern ourselves with two factors,

  1. Memorizing

  2. Forgetting 

From academic point of view the former suggests ability (if one calls it ability) to recall or recognize information that is already processed. The latter seems to hinder our most important cognitive function of recognizing or recalling information as and when we please. 

 

Off course we would want to remember everything and not forget anything. This feat has been achieved by a few, to give an example, Kim Peek suits the description. A Savant who could read a book in just one hour. He remembered everything he read. But Kim was a genius with a split brain.

Since the article’s title is Why do we forget?, we shall stick to why or what factors can make us forget where others can limit forgetting. 

Believe it or not forgetting is an intrinsic part of learning or remembering. Brain meaningless information easily. To state it simply brain seems to forget information which is less useful and keeps which we use often.

From point of view of giving exam, memory has often disappointed us when sitting and recalling in examination hall. 

Memory for a simplistic understanding can be divided into 2 types, 

  1. Long term memory

  2. Short term memory

 

From exam and other relevant information long-term memory is the point of discussion. Generally accepted view is that information with respect to time fades as time passes by. However, this viewpoint is credited much with.

 

Forgetting happens, because :

 

  • Interference,

Psychologists say that people tend to forget when people information currently being learned interferes with information which is already there. For example, you already know how to drive a bike but now, for a long time are driving a car. Then you probably have forgotten how to drive a bike. It may be that you would now need a little brush up before driving a bike.

  • We consciously choose to remember things rest we forget,

Act of choosing has importance when it comes to memory. It helps the mind direct effort to certain more relevant or important details of the subject matter. Retrieval inhibition is a phenomena where you remember details of information that you consciously made an effort to remember but forget other related details. 

Example, from a list of 50 names of cities if you try to remember 30 rest 20 you will forget.

  • Memory distortion or biases,

It occurs as and when we are presented with facts or details which were not known to us. We are programmed to view the world through “lens” ,  everyone has a different lens. We have these lenses which are biases.These biases also protects our very own existence (personality, beliefs etc).

People under interrogation tend to produce more just opinion of themselves than they usually are or would have been.

  • What is hard to remember, we simply choose to forget it,

Memory is linked to emotions and mood. We tend to forget things which have caused us great pain and suffering. These are repressed memories.  Freud, had argued that repressed memories are pushed into unconscious mind where they persists causing psychological problems. 

  • Memory reconstruction or False memories, 

Sometimes the case is such that we create memories rather than having experienced it. This can certainly be the case when eyewitnesses are called to give their testimony pertaining a case. It has been found that many a times eyewitnesses themselves are not aware of false memory reconstruction happening. 

You may ask why? This happens because many a times people fail to identify origin of such memories. To state it simply, many a times eyewitness will fail to discern source or origin from where memory would be coming. 

  • Mood congruence effect,

This essentially mean even mood effects are memory. Mood serves as retrieval cue. We are more likely to remember things when we are in good mood. Also, we are likely to remember a positive information in good mood and similarly as negative information in bad mood. 

You can understand it as, if you had a bad day you are most likely to remember all the bad things that had happened to you. 

Memory is funny but it is very useful. Honing it, is a challenge. Practice and training can help improving memory to an extent. At best memory works as sequence or array of information not as isolated bits information. 

Read Also, Memory Hacks

Visit our site brainpundits

Good luck!!

 

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10 Mantras to follow before you go for any exam

brainpundits study tipsReading Time: 3 minutes

Examination times are times dread. We become anxious, nervous and stressed. As the time comes near we get busy in studying harder to finish our revision so as to feel better. That good feeling has to carry it to the exam hall. 

Examinations are a vital part of education system. It tests students ability to understand and learn. In India even if you are under 19 years of age, you probably would have given near about 30+ examinations up till now. 

Not to forget they are an important part of your life. Since their occurrences is much to often and hard to ignore. 

The article will discuss on what to do during the last few days of exam till the final day (perhaps a week before an exam to exam day). Many of us miss out on important details and then fail due to various reasons which would have not been the case if you hadn’t missed out on it. 

 

So, here are 10 Mantras you should keep in mind before giving an exam

  • Revision of the essence, if you have any new concept or left over course then first finish your work and then read if you have time. Do not study new concept a day before exam, facts and less complex concept can don’t bombard yourself with it. Poor outcome.

 

  • Don’t discuss with your friends what you have read during a week before exam. If you feel there is a need to talk to your friends then only talk about things other than your exam.

 

 

  • Eat healthy and sleep healthy. Best to try good food and restaurant dining post exam. Since, you don’t want to upset your stomach.

  • Cool off time should be taken. Make use of free time to cool off. Best to engage in activities that are less intensive. You should be doing leisure activities. 

  • Mental revisions are helpful, see the topic and try to recall what it talks about. If you say it right then you are doing well.

  • Read all the exam instructions carefully, follow it to the rule. If there is any dress code mention then follow it. If it says to bring a particular type of pen. Exam time should not be disturbed. Don’t break any rule as it would bring attention of invigilators and can cause disruption.

 

  •  If required, take a printout of your exam call letter or admit card. Prepare yourself well, after all you are going for a battle. Be it mental.

  • Don’t engage in nervous eating, make sure that even on exam day you eat less spicy and staple food but not too less or too much.

  • Take blessings of your elders, Luck matters in an exam. Many exams are cleared when luck is with us. What better way can be to have blessings of elders. After what we need most during exams is luck, especially during exam times.

 

 

Hope you liked

Best of luck !!!

Read also How to read a book ?

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Leader Vs Manager, Who are you ?

Reading Time: 3 minutes

“ where manager relies on persuasion, leader relies on inspiration.” 

 

Often what we see,observe or come across terms such as Leaders and Managers. To come to think of it they become hard to describe or usually would find overlapping descriptions. No doubt in both leaders and managers there are overlapping areas, but, there are points of distinction too.  

 

As per my knowledge this is a popular question asked in the interviews for jobs and getting into top MBA colleges. Also, it would be better to know which suits you the best, are you a leader or a manager?

 

Leaders and Managers are both important in their respective fields. There is a grey area where many qualities of a leader match with that of a manager and vice versa.

 

There are people who might be good managers but would not be good leaders. Also there would be good leaders who would not be as good a manager.

 

The article focuses on distinctions between the two. 

Leaders are simply understood as those who will lead the way. You can understand Gandhiji as a leader who essentially had led Indian freedom struggle against Colonialism in India. 

In military this distinction deepens, example, A company commander is leader of company of about 100 men in the battlefield. He is as much as participant in battlefield as any other soldier. He gives order regarding formations, tactics, and other important maneuvers in battlefield. As a manager a company commander manages his company’s civil and military supplies and grievance redressal of his men.

 

Leaders have qualities such as

  • Builds better cohesion among his teammates. Promotes goodwill among team.

  • Motivates and Inspires his team members.

  • Builds good connection with all team members.

  • Trains and teaches.

  • Orients team according to long-term and short-term goals which have to be accomplished.

  • A leader is a visionary, meaning he sees a long-term goal for organisation.

  • Leaders are sometimes people who challenge status quo.

  • They bring creativity and change to an organisation.

  • Leaders focus on bringing positive value to organisation.

  • They bring in both tangible and intangible changes which are good for an organisation. 

Read also 11 signs you are leader

Managers are people who provide efficiency to an organisation. They manage work and provide efficacy in an organisation.

If you watch football you would know Jose Mourinho, Arsene Wenger and Sir Alex Ferguson are elite managers. As said earlier goal is defined and managers promote efficiency like oversight of team performance, trading of players, best combination on field and most importantly winning UEFA champions league or EPL . They usually have authority which helps them override and take decisions at crucial time as and when required.

 

Managers have qualities such as

  • Usually work with authority.

  • Designate duties to members.

  • Monitor performances of team members.

  • Provides directions and advice when required.

  • Are usually those who execute plan and do the work.

  • Draws out a detailed plan with forecasting.

  • Managers are people who implement and produce tangible gains for an organisation.

  • Managers are usually task masters, members are the ones who work under the authority of Manager.

  • A manager is good at time management and effective communicator. 

Read also Leadership at workplace

Leaders and Manager both have their importance in an organisation. To put it in a laconic way, one outlines and leads to the goal/vision and other does the work required to achieve the goal/vision.

 

Hope it sheds light on the distinction between the two.