Using Pomodoro technique to study better

Reading Time: 2 minutes

 

Ever heard the advice from parents boasting that in their time they used to study night and day for an exam and probably wondered is that all there is to get good marks. Sitting and studying for longer duration will certainly get you in list of toppers, right? .. Wrong! Actually slogging for long hours may not be that beneficial. Chances are, you would forget most of it.

You have heard this phrase “All work no play, makes Jim a dull boy”. Turns out this is true regarding your work efficiency. Studying continuously for long hours will make you prone to mental exhaustion.

 

However, this doesn’t mean that you entertain the idea that studying for shorter duration. Doesn’t work that way.

 

There are many examples when students of schools, colleges and institutes ask that how many hours of study is required to score good marks or clear an examination.

 

Obviously, much of discussion revolves around the number of hours taken proportional to your result. There seems to be a tacitly agreed upon consensus that more numbers of hours (time) one puts in more better will be the result.

 

Coming back to the antithesis established in first para, that studying for 15 hours duration on average is not beneficial but debilitating.

To our rescue there is a technique which helps us study throughout the day and is not so menacing as methods suggested by our parents/peers talked about. Time is of the utmost importance, when we are studying. We can use time more efficiently and perhaps do less mental labor.

 

A time management technique that helps,

 

Pomodoro technique

 

This method of time management was invented by Francesco Cirillo. Believe it or not the technique suggests taking breaks and fragmenting studying sessions into intervals. So, in a way it is suggesting you to take breaks in between your study sessions.

 

Step by step guide to use study session

  1. Study for 25 – 30 minutes.
  2. Take break but not longer than 1o minutes.
  3. Study again for 25- 30 minutes.
  4. Repeat these study sessions with short intervals or breaks in between those study sessions (breaks should not extend beyond 10 mins).
  5. After approximately 5 such sessions you would have studied for  2.5 hours and your break would have been 40 minutes.
  6. After 5 such study sessions it is suggested taking a longer break of about 25- 30 minutes. This will replenish you again for intensive study sessions.
  7. Study throughout the day using this technique. You will feel less exhausted.

 

Pomodoro technique allows for mind to replenish by taking systematic breaks. It helps reduce procrastination also. You can study longer more effectively without mentally exhausting yourself. It makes you more efficient in your studies. This way you will be doing smart work and not just hard work.

 

Fastest and Best way to become a school teacher

Reading Time: 3 minutes

 

 

Teaching is a wonderful career. It provides one with an opportunity to contribute positively to society. They contribute in Nation building. As a school teacher provides for building strong foundation in terms of capacity, ability and moral character in students. Teachers build social capital of nation.

 

In our country they are respected for their role in society. Usually kept in high regards. School teacher, as a career choice can be a goal of many, motivations being

 

  • Respect in society

  • Good Salary

  • Authority

  • Responsibility

  • Relatively less taxing job

  • Get time to pursue leisure

Getting a teaching job requires certain certification and educational requirements which makes you fit/eligible for teaching preschool, primary, secondary and high school level.

 

In terms of remuneration

 

Becoming a school teacher is relatively easier than cracking a bank exam or any other aptitude based exams. In many cases government teachers draw upon more if not equivalent salary than entry level bank officer or SSC jobs. However, becoming teacher requires one to go through a process. This means it is more than just giving an exam and getting the role. It requires one to go through several stages to become a teacher. 

 

The article provides for fastest ways to become school teacher. Naturally a preschool or kindergarten teacher’s requirement would be different from high school teacher.

 

Keeping that in mind following are the ways :

 

  1. Preschool Or Kindergarten level,

  • A Graduation is required preferably in Diploma in Education (D.ed). A certificate in Nursery teachers training would get you into Preschool level teaching. (since many schools ask for it)
  • Another way would be to, on completion of 12th can go for Association of Montessori Internationale courses. In some course 10 + 2 is minimum requirement.
  • Salary of 30- 35 k monthly

 

  1.  Primary and Secondary level

  • Fastest way would be to pursue Diploma in Elementary education (D.el.ed). Would be of two years only. Can pursue after completion of 12th.
  • Although Bachelor in Education (B.ed) is recommended.
  • Should prepare for CTET (Central Teachers Eligibility Test). Clearing CTET, one can apply to contractual teaching jobs.
  • Upon qualifying CTET one becomes eligible. Further State board or Central board exam(DSSSB, KVS exam)  has to given to get employed
  • Can also give STET (State level eligibility) for state schools.
  • Salary of Government teacher through CTET route would earn 40-50k monthly.

 

  1. Higher Secondary (11 and 12th standard),

  • PGT level (Postgraduate Teacher)
  • Fastest way would be to pursue Graduation in Education (B.Ed). And masters in desired subject.
  • Clear the Central TET exam for higher secondary. Upon clearing you become eligible to apply for Central exams such as KVS exam, NVS (Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti) etc.
  • Salary 50-60k Monthly.

 

A school teacher is the pillar on which the whole nation building process take place. Teachers are the important constituent in imparting knowledge with ethics. Certainly a career in teaching is fulfilling and desired for, if you you’re thinking to become a school teacher we can help guide you. You can also take the personality test to understand yourself better.

 

Ending with a beautiful quote,

Teaching is a very noble profession that shapes the character, caliber, and future of an individual. If the people remember me as a good teacher, that will be the biggest honor for me.”    A.P.J Abdul Kalam

 

The Marshmallow Experiment, Success determinant?

Reading Time: 2 minutes

 

So, do you like one marshmallow? or two or three for that matter. The more the merrier (assuming you like marshmallow). The marshmallow study was conducted by Stanford psychologist Walter Mischel during the 1960s and 1970s as series of experiments.

The study was insightful as it provided an explanation for some becoming successful later on in their life and others not so.

 

The experiment was successful in finding a link between self control and success. The idea so perpetuated then was that delayed gratification can make or break it for you. Off course will power, persistence, determination etc were linked to it.

 

So, what was the experiment?

The experiment conducted with some children. Children separately were brought to a room and offered one marshmallow.

Subsequently, children were offered a choice.

 

They could either eat it or they could wait for sometime (while the first marshmallow was kept right in front of them as temptation) and get another one if they had not eaten the first marshmallow.

 

So, essentially to get the second marshmallow kids would have to resist the temptation of not eating the first. This meant that every kid put into such a situation had to resist the feeling of not eating the first marshmallow so as to receive another for a certain amount of time.

 

Observations

Some children were able to delay the gratification and could resist the temptation of not eating the first marshmallow. While others simply gave into the temptation.

 

What does this imply?

 

Delaying the gratification had larger implications. Those children who were able to delay the gratification and those who could not were tracked for more than 35- 40 years to see how they fare in life.

 

Fast forward, children were tracked and assessed to find that only those who could resist the temptation had fared well in their respective careers as compared to those who ate the marshmallow right away.

 

You can also watch the video here – Marshmallow Test

What does this mean for you ?

 

Other than intelligence there are certain non-cognitive factors which determine your success. Intelligence will not do everything for you. Effort, self control, will, and delaying gratification are important factors in determining how successful you will become in life.

 

Current research is questioning the established view of this experiment. It finds that it is variable along socio-economic status and susceptible to cultural variations.

Can also read – Pavlovian conditioning

Your takeaway from it,

Non-cognitive factors such as will, self control, and delaying gratification have positive impact in determining your success.

 

Traits such as being disciplined or having strong will-power and even good self control can help you achieve your goals in life. Even if you are not that intelligent there is good enough chance of you succeeding in life if you have these attributes. As intelligence alone does not determine success.

 

Goodluck to you!!!

 

NeuroScience says you become mature at 25

Reading Time: 2 minutes

 

In many societies you become eligible to vote when you turn 18. This rests on sound logic that you are mature now to elect your representative. When is comes to drinking alcohol, WHO reports that in almost 65 percent of the countries drinking age is 18 and above. Some of the countries like Sri lanka, Pakistan and USA have 21 years and above as legal age to be consuming alcohol. Legal age for girls to get married is 18 years in India.

 

Why I am telling you all this, is because such distinctions are rested up on the fact that roughly 18 years is considered as the age when you get matured enough to vote, drink or marry.

 

So, 18 years seems fair, right?

 

Wrong! at least Neuroscientists don’t agree with it. According to Dr Sandra Aamadt, we are likely to get mature around 25 years of age. To put more clarity to it first let’s talk about maturity first.

 

What is maturity?

Maturity is the ability to make a good sound judgement and have average if not better decision making ability. To make it more simpler you know what you are doing? Why you are doing it?

 

Research By Dr Aamodt,

 

Brain scans shows that prefrontal cortex of the brain develops well beyond the age of 18. The prefrontal cortex of brain is responsible for decision making and judgement. The research also suggests that roughly around 25 years, one becomes mature enough to make sound decisions.

 

The prefrontal cortex regulates our emotions, social interactions, risk assessment and planning.

If the age maturity is 25 then it has some serious implications. Like for example Punishment award system to criminals, Age of marriage, Consent laws, Education etc.

 

The scholar suggests a flexible system which accounts for different age for different functions. There can be exceptions to this rule since there could be people who mature at 18-19 or may be 21 years of age.

 

However, the study points generally maturity strikes at 25 or may be little over that. Since your prefrontal cortex keeps developing beyond 18.

 

So, if you have done something you regret or may be feel guilt about before you turned 25. You could forgive yourself or ask for forgiveness knowing maybe you weren’t that  mature enough to take good decision.

 

Goodluck!!!

Use Ebbinghaus forgetting curve to memorize better

Reading Time: 2 minutes

 

Believe it or not forgetting is natural part of learning anything.

 

Hermann Ebbinghaus, German Psychologist, is credited with research on forgetting when learning. Ebbinghaus had discovered that much of what we read/learn is forgotten during the first hour of learning itself.

 

Memory works in a way, that it remembers meaningful information more easily and it stays longer than meaningless information. Meaningless information is simply any information which is not in use for brain or has run out it utility. Example, it could be that information which you read for an exam and post examination have problem recalling it. Mind has an intriguing way or remembering and rejecting information. 

 

Ebbinghaus had conducted experiment for both meaningful and meaningless retention. However, Meaningless information is important for us to study because by knowing why we forget our course material we would be able to understand and find solutions for it.

 

Below is retention (y-axis) vs time lapsed (x-axis) graph

 fig. 1

In figure 1, Notice the retention drops substantially in the first hour itself. Much of what we learnt (around 80 percent) is forgotten after 2 days only. This is found to be natural and universal, meaning all exhibit this phenomenon with little variations.

However, Good news is that you can change it by disrupting the pattern exhibited in Curve.

 

READ also SQ3R method of studying

Key essence is to minimise forgetting is periodic revisions of course/lectures/study material

Figure 2 Image from www.salesactivator.com/resources/blog/impactful-curve-forgetting/

 

The point is to revise periodically whatever you have  studied or read. The periodic revisions will help you retain better with least amount of mental effort.

Best way to do it is

  1. Revise after learning it once, or after attending a lecture.
  2. Again, Revise a day after your have learnt it.
  3. Again, Revise a week later.
  4. And Again, Revise a 28 days/month after learning.

In figure 2, notice that at approximately 75 percent on the y-scale (retentivity) there is an acute fall in remembering/retention. So after every learning session you should revise/review the course/notes/study material.

 

Hermann Ebbinghaus, has provided a gainful insight on how are memory works and how forgetting happens. The stressing viewpoint here is that this forgetting can be subject to change and you can maximize your learning.

Goodluck!!!

 

Use the 80/20 rule to get good marks

Reading Time: 3 minutes

Vilfredo Fritz Pareto, an Italian polymath. He was an engineer, sociologist, political scientist and economist. He is famous for his book ‘Manual of political economy’ and for pareto’s principle.

 

It is this Pareto’s Principle that you can apply to make your study effective. Pareto’s principle is also called “Law of the vital few”.

 

To put it simply “ roughly 80% of effects/results come from 20 percent of causes”. This wonderful discovery of pareto happened when he observed that in his garden 20 percent of pea pods produced 80 percent of the peas.

 

During his stay in Lausanne he had discovered that 20 percent of the people in Italy owned 80 percent of the land. Pareto in 1909 had published it in book stating that this principle generally can be applied to wealth and other things and that this rule could be observed in any generation of any society.

 

Taking further, this 80/20 rule can be generally be applied to,

 

  • Investment
  • Studying
  • Farming
  • Marketing
  • Business
  • Trading
  • Economics
  • Research

 

And many more you can think of. Vilfredo pareto was able to discover that this using mathematics as a tool in political science and sociology.

 

Using 80/20 when studying,

 

What is 80/20 rule?

When applying to studying it is your 80 percent of result will come for 20 percent of your studying particular topics.

 

What does above imply?

This means that in your course there are some topics which are more important than others. This also means that areas you should focus on should not be even but weighted and not a constant, when it comes to focusing your attention and directing your efforts.

 

How do you go about it?

 

The first thing that you should do is to study the previous years papers to find what all questions are coming in the exam.

 

Usually, you will find some pattern. You will get to know from which topics the questions are usually coming. This essentially means that there are some topics which are more important than others. Some topics or sections from where the questions are regularly coming and other topics usually are not so popular with paper setters.

 

What does 80/20 have to do with studying previous year question papers?

Precisely everything, through this 80/20 rule you know that there are some topics which are of more importance than the others. This means your studying effort should not be evenly distributed but weighted accordingly. According to 80/20 rule your 80 percent of paper will come from 20 percent of the topics. (assuming these are exact or fixed estimates but a good estimate)

 

Sounds wonderful, doesn’t it, yes it is !

 

To make it simple, an example,

Supposedly there are 5 topics in a test that you have to prepare :

You should as stated above complete your assessment of previous years papers and mock tests, notice which of the topics are more prominently coming in your tests. Mark those topics, these are topics you should focus more on. For example topic 1 and topic 4 are more important as most questions are coming from these. You should focus more on them as compared to other topics.

 

This means that your effort is not evenly divided but distributed unevenly in your topics that you have to prepare.

 

So, apply 80/20 here, your test shall comprise of majority of questions coming from topic 1 and topic 4, rest 20 percent would be coming from others. Hence, your efforts should be best directed to topic 1 and topic 4 and other topics should be revised but your priority is topic 1 and topic 4.

 

Here it is, another smart way to study or prepare for an exam. And by the way this rule can be applied elsewhere also, just have to be creative.

 

Goodluck !

 

Top 5 absolutely free digital marketing certifications

Reading Time: 3 minutes

 

 

In age of digital marketing many businesses by being digital have established Global or National presence. The need to have substantial presence is the need of the hour. Since businesses have gone digital their marketing also has become digital.

 

Digital marketing provides for job opportunities beyond conventional marketing jobs. Your work would be using SEO (search engine optimization) tools to market better on digital landscape. This not necessarily requires salesman skills but an understanding of how search engines work and certain skills which are technical regarding promotion of business over the internet.

 

Digital marketing in India provides for modest earning if you are new to it or have just acquired it or are just entering the industry. This salary as entrant would be 25,000 INR monthly to an experienced person earning more than 1 lakh per month.

 

Here are top FREE certifications which you can get in Digital Marketing:

 

The certification provided by Google, is designed for entrepreneurs and new entrants to Digital Marketing. You can be assured of learning the basics of digital marketing. This can set your base for a good certification later.

 

Since Google provides certification, you can be assured its authentic.

READ also Awesome Free Online Courses

 

 

Alison is also another great certification platform where you can get certifications for free. However, you just have to sign up. It is a global presence and is one of the largest entity that provides free learning and free certifications.

 

Alison certifications are market relevant. You can look up for other courses.

 

 

A Digital Marketing course created by Sorav Jain provided by Udemy. Provides for 5.5 hours of video lectures on demand. Covers the basics of online marketing. You will also get a certifications at completion of course.

 

Since, this is a basic course you will learn the basics and familiarity with SEO, Analytics, etc.

 

 

It provides for free courses pertaining to digital marketing, blog marketing, SEO, email marketing, e-commerce marketing etc. It provides free e-book and have to pass an exam to get certified. The passing score is 50 percent and you can also retake the exam.

 

 

This marketing course is also absolutely free. Provided by MIT entrepreneurs collaborated to provide marketing certification and strategies. There are some courses for free whereas others are charged.

 

Hubspot is provides for courses which taught by marketing experts. A 5-hour course program which is absolutely free.

 

There are many other courses like Blueprint certification by Facebook, Digital marketing courses on edX, Linkedin Marketing courses etc. However, these courses are paid or require price payment for certifications.

 

The digital marketing course can certainly benefit your profile and make your resume credible, If you looking to enter digital marketing then such certifications can provide for foundation on which you can learn digital marketing.

 


Photo credits

Google, Alison, Udemy, e-Marketing Institute, Hubspot

 

11 Signs you are a Leader

Reading Time: 3 minutes

 

A famous quote to start with,

 

If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.”

                                                                                                                                                                          John Quincy Adam

 

Leaders, as the quote mentions are those who inspires others. Certain bit of positive connotation attached to the word. It gives a sense of hope and inspiration whenever the word is uttered or mentioned anywhere. 

 

What’s interesting is that word itself is associative and attributive. Meaning whenever you hear the word ‘leader’ either a leader pops up in your head or a quality. Example, it could be Nelson Mandela or Gandhi ji. A quality can also pop up in your head like self sacrificing/ responsible etc.

 

To have a better idea and to illuminate on what attributes do Leaders possess. Let us look at signs and attributes that are generally accepted as qualities that Leaders display.

 

Here are some of  general character traits and signs of leaders,

 

  • You are a Motivator

A leader is a person who generally keeps the morale of the team high. She/he uses persuasion and encouragement as tools to promote cohesion among her/his team. If you are a person who generally helps in keeping the morale of the team members high, also are good with persuasion. Then you are on right track.

 

  • You are in it with your team

You are leading from the front.  Leaders are good at decision making, in fact the best because they usually take up concerns of everyone and take long term interest into account. You  invest and decide on matters concerning operation and management of your team.

 

  • You feel responsible for your team

Great leaders think not as individuals but better as team or as a unit. You feel responsible for actions of their team and more when team faces loss. You show high level of accountability for their actions and their team. Leaders rule with responsibility less with authority.

 

  • You are creative and game changer

Leaders display creative tendencies and are usually not followers of organizational rules of authority. You are out of the box thinkers. Leaders create opportunities for others and build capacity of others. You are sometimes seen to even challenge established rules of society.

 

  • You build good relations

Leaders are individuals not concerned and not bothered by petty concerns of the mind. You promote general good behavior. Leaders never indulge in petty talks and malicious gossips.

 

Also read Leadership at workplace

 

  • You are love responsibility but understand authority

As a leader you like to command with responsibility. At the same time  you understand and respect authority by following it to the rule. You show high level of Discipline and Integrity.

 

  • You value people as ends, not means

Every Leader born or not, displays this character trait. You intrinsically value people. As leaders you will never treat them as means to achieve something. You value people. As a Leader you may or may not get along with people but you do not hold any biases towards them. You are generally good with everyone.

 

  • You are providers and nurturers

Leaders are drawn on their nurturing ability. Leadership allow a whole ecosystem of people to thrive and progress. As Leaders you provide help and assistance to those who are falling behind or those who are struggling.

 

  • You are a workaholic

All leaders are hard working individuals. Leaders work harder to bring positive change. However, you make time for people and other things. Leaders also are good with time management.

 

  • You are open to rational criticism

Leaders are open to criticism. In fact leaders learn from it and make changes. Leaders are open to ideas and criticism based on sound logic. Leaders know rational criticism helps one know weaknesses, which are otherwise ignored and gives opportunity to reflect and progress.

 

  • You are humble and express gratitude

Humble is a character trait shown by leaders. Leaders are those individuals who express gratitude whenever it is required. They are honest and firm in their actions with humbleness to account for.

 

Leaders are those people who stand up for wrong even if they are alone. They are honest in their expression. Leadership contribute positively to society to bring change for the better. They are those who sometimes misunderstood and hated for wrong reasons by the majority. So, these were signs which signify leadership quality in people.

Hope you liked!!!

 

How to stop procrastination and get things done

Reading Time: 4 minutes

 

Procrastination is a habit or tendency which delays or postpones the work that we have scheduled for ourselves. It is a tendency displayed by the person who delays a task indefinitely without any substantive reason.

 

Procrastination is common to everyone, this means that nearly everyone experiences it. Procrastination from Academics point of view has concerns regarding efficiency and productivity. Some intelligent and smart students suffer from procrastination which get reflected in their scores.

 

Your procrastination would look something like this if you plot it on graph:

 

As you can see that productivity is affected when you are starting a task or ending a task. There can be other variables but to simplify this, above two graph explains procrastination grossly.

 

There are primarily two areas where you seem to display dip in productivity. Starting or ending are points of concern over here. You can do the following to help yourself reduce or even eliminate procrastination.

 

Some strategies to cope up with procrastination,

 

 

  • Dive in head first if you see yourself procrastinating,

If you see or observe that you are procrastinating probably taking time to even start a task because of any reason than best would be to Just get started even if you are not mentally prepared. This will help you break the habit of delaying a task unintentionally.

 

 

 

 

  • Become Mindful,

You must be aware of yourself think about why you are doing what you are doing. Sometimes it could be lethargy, other times it could be uncertainty or sometimes you are affected by your mood. Once you get to know what is causing your procrastination it will easy to remedy it.

 

 

 

 

  • Follow a routine, Stick to it

Following a routine which will help you think less and do more. Routines are best way to eliminate procrastination. The habit itself will help you reduce procrastination.

 

 

  • Don’t do too much of planning,

Too much of planning is counter productive. Best would be to survey a task and break your tasks into micro tasks which will help you focus on constituent tasks. Too much of planning will eat away your time and you would be thinking more about how to do the task rather than doing the task.

 

 

  • Eliminating distractions,

Distractions are what drive your procrastination. Work or doing a task is universally boring unless you are one of those who love working. Best way is to know what are the distractions that fuel your Procrastination. Example, you often look at social media through your phone when doing a task, or watch videos on youtube when doing a task or in between a task.

 

 

  • Practice delayed gratification,

Delaying your gratification helps develop an habit to focus on tasks and not get distracted. As suggested delayed gratification can help you become an achiever. This can help you become more disciplined and habitual to perform the task. You can read more on stanford marshmallow experiment.

 

 

 

  • Don’t think too much about the outcome or result,

Often when we are starting a task we nervous or anxious about the outcome. This causes unnecessary delay in starting a task. Best is to be rational and avoid over thinking on outcomes or results. Outcome is not something in your control but effort is. If you believe in yourself, know yourself and your ability. Then by being rational and not thinking much about outcome you should get on with it.

 

 

 

  • Don’t be harsh on yourself, to increase productivity take short breaks.

Be kind to yourself, sticking for long hours reduces your productivity. You might have observed that after a prolonged hour of study session you find yourself watching a YouTube video or Facebook and you realize that much time is lost. Best is to take break when you feel a little exhausted doing a task. And don’t take a break there where you are doing a task but elsewhere so that you remind yourself to return to completing the task or study session.

 

 

We all have experienced it or experience it on frequent basis. The point is to make an effort to change is what will make the real difference.

 

The SQ3R method of studying effectively

Reading Time: 3 minutes

 

Studying can be a task. If only it could be done rather efficiently and effectively. Often we study book from cover to cover. This article brings in an effective studying approach which can reduce your mental strain and effort. It was propounded by Francis P. Robinson. The SQ3R method.

Francis Pleasant Robinson, a popular educational psychologist, is the inventor of this effective method of studying. During his time in Ohio State University, he worked with an assessment team which worked on studying skills and habits of the new recruits in the army during World War 2. They used the data to devise certain high level strategies for learning and skill development.

 

Later Robinson’s book effective study outlined SQ3R method which suggests and effective way of studying. This method provides a systematic way of studying in less time.

 

What does SQ3R stand for?

 

Survey

Question

Read

Recite

Review

In essence this should be your approach when you are venturing to read a text.

 

Using SQ3R technique?

 

  • Survey

Read the index and preface to get an idea of how you are going to approach. Your survey of the book should be of finding target areas (example concepts,facts) which are important for your exam/assignment. A cursory reading of sub topics and sub dimensions given in the book will certainly help. The survey should be short, usually not more than 5 – 7 minutes.

 

read here study hacks

 

  • Question

Now after completion of survey, ask questions to yourself regarding the text you just surveyed. Use the subheadings and dimensions given to form queries. What happens is, this way of questioning will increase your general curiosity and interests in text you are going to delve into. The questions you form, write them down in a workbook systematically.

 

 

  • Read

Post jotting down questions to the text you just surveyed, go for hunting the answers in the text. Only this time be alert and more focused than you were when surveying. Read areas of concern/importance very carefully and thoughtfully. Read twice/thrice if required.

 

 

  • Recite

Now comes the challenging part, try to answer the questions which you had written earlier in your own language and briefly (suggested). At this point note down what important points are required (should make notes in your own words). These notes will provide a basis for reviewing material later.

 

Make sure that you don’t copy from the book and write very briefly about the topic. This uses kinaesthetic form learning which equally important as other forms of learning.

 

  • Review

After completing everything, the final step is to read the notes you have made by reviewing them at spaced intervals (an hour, next day, after a week). The way you shall go about reviewing is to recite in your mind all the major sub heads, dimensions with what they are implying. Through this you will work on recalling material when revising. In essence you are reinforcing what all you have read.

 

This method of reading was later introduced to graduates also. Mr Robinson had published this method in his book effective study (1946). The book outlines ways to improve on study methods and acquiring effective study skills.