Reading is a skill. Hence, some people get a better understanding by gliding through text once whereas others might have to read twice, thrice and still cannot comprehend fully.
Reading faster helps in reducing the time and mental effort. Ever wished if you could get more out of text and could read books faster. This can help you read more books enhance your knowledge and reflect your capability.
How to Read 2x Faster
Reading has two primary components
The language is an important component, without saying the more the command over language the more you will fly through text.
Comprehensibility is your ability to understand what you are reading with ease. The more the ease the better your ability.
Ways you can use to swim through text
- If you are a beginner or are struggling with reading in general, I suggest building base use a pen/pencil to read through the text. Your pen/pencil follows your eyes through the text.
- Understand first what you desire to derive from book/topic/text/article you are reading. More often than not, we read through first to the last word. Depending upon your demand you set the tone of your reading.
- Use skimming, skimming is done to get a general view of the text/book/article. Here you glance through the topic to get an overall view. Example, if I am in a hurry to read this article then instead of reading from top to bottom First would read the topic and some lines of introduction then would find anything highlighted or slant written lines or boldly written line, read through them and points mentioned and leaving other things.
- Use Scanning, when you need to understand a subtopic or concept/idea from a book. When you know what you want from the text it is better to directly to the main crux without dallying with the book. Example, I know what is want through this article is to learn techniques, hence, I scan through the text to find “Ways you can use to swim through text”, this is where I shall focus more than other areas of articles.
- If you know about the topic then you can skip parts which you are aware off to speed read it. I do that most of the time. Many of the details are that I find I know or stats I skip to the areas which require more concentration.
- Become a voracious reader, if not then at least read whenever you find an opportunity. This will make your reading ability stronger. Some years back it took me 2 hours to read a Newspaper, Now I can read it easily under 40 minutes with more accuracy.
Reading requires an investment of time and effort. You have to work through it. There is no doubt that the more you read, the faster you will get at reading provided you are comprehending what you are reading simultaneously.
Phobias are irrational fears. They may invoke a physiological response or cause intense distress. Usually, Phobias can be triggered by a person coming near to the object or putting in a situation where it is triggered where even the anticipation can trigger panic.
Phobia is different from fear in the sense that they are much more serious as they may trigger a panic attack and anxiety. Also other than fear, a phobic person can be averse to something causing distress.
24 Most Weird Phobias You Never Heard Of
People who are afraid of taking a bad selfie or have issues with identity or how they look. People usually don’t find their selfie good enough or feel they are not attractive enough desist from taking.
Using emojis have become part of texting be it Facebook chat or WhatsApp. Emojis are used over many platforms. Here a person fears emojis which can cause misunderstandings or miscommunication.
Fear of time is chronophobia. It is seen that prisoners and older people who keep rigorous track of time are usually susceptible of chronophobia. As time lost cannot be brought back makes them panicky.
Ever been without your phone. Did you feel uneasy? There is phobia where a person will panic if one is not connected to the network or separated from their phone.
Is the fear of cheese. They are averse to cheese. A person having Turophobia might just run away seeing cheese. Cheese can be terrifying for some.
This is fear of belly button or navel. It can be triggered by viewing or looking another person’s belly button or one’s own even for that matter.
Believe it or not, there are people who fear the pope. So, if you are a Papathophobic person then visiting the Vatican would not be such a good idea. Crudely translates to fear of holy things or the pope in some cases.
Unwrapping a gift can be delightful, receiving or giving gifts are joyful. Apparently not for some people, the thought of it scares some people. Doraphobia pertains to making or receiving gifts.
Ever saw Jesus or dinosaur shape formed in clouds. Apparently, people who have Nephophobia are scared of Clouds. So, a foggy day would be a terrifying experience for such people or flying above the clouds.
Fear of swallowing, phagophobia. Could be related to a bad experience when eating or swallowing. This based on fear of getting choked when swallowing liquids, food, etc.
Fear of not being able to understand what you are reading. This makes studying terrifying.
Is characterized as a fear of knowledge. Gnosophobic person might react with aversion or hatred to any kind of new knowledge.
to see/know more weird phobias *see part 2 of weird phobias.
It is the fear of adolescents/teenagers. This type of aversion is likely seen in older people towards younger people. So next time if you see an old person moving away from your good company, they are probably scared of you.
Fear of number 13. This type of fear persists in people when seeing/noticing number 13. They usually avoid floor number 13 or car plate number with 13.
A dextrophobic person fears objects to the right side of. The dextrophobic individual will never walk on the right side or take the right turn or be to his right. This is a type of OCD.
This type phobia pertains to fearing the number ‘666’. In the biblical sense, this number is associated with evil. They will avoid buying a car plate number with ‘666’ or house number with ‘666’.
It is the fear of buttons. Such people fear wearing or even avoid seeing buttons. So, it’s obvious that you won’t see them at any formal event where everyone is either wearing a suit or shirt.
It is the fear of vegetables. People in this category will definitely not be eating any dish which has vegetables in it.
A person having trypophobia fears seeing pores or holes or bumps collectively in a patterned or unpatterned way. They are very averse to even the sight of it. It generally causes strong dislike/aversion.
Ompbrophobia is the fear of rainfall. Such people watch the weather regularly to avoid rainfall. They prefer to sit inside wait for rainfall to get over.
It is the fear of beards. Babies are usually afraid of bearded men, they will cry at the sight of seeing a bearded man. People in this category will avoid being in close proximity to beards in general.
As the name gives the clue. This type of fear pertains to fearing long words. People who have this phobia will avoid using/speaking longer words.
This type of Phobia is associated with fear of developing a phobia or more aptly put the fear of fearing something. Some Phobophobic person can suffer from panic attacks and anxiety also.
Different Phobia may require different treatment. However, almost all require Psychotherapy and in some cases even medications after diagnosis.
So, here are the 24 Most Weird Phobias You Never Heard Of. Hope you liked !
“if you can’t explain it simply then you never understood it well enough” – Richard Feynman
Richard Feynman was an American theoretical physicist. He is known for his contribution quantum electrodynamics and particle physics.
Richard Feynman proposed a technique which enabled a faster learning process. This technique allowed one to pinpoint problem areas in our learning.
He suggested that if you are not able to explain complex ideas into simple way then you probably are missing something or have not understood it properly.
Steps to use Feynman technique to learn faster
- Read and understand the concept or theory which you need to learn. You can read once twice or as many times you want. The point is you need to understand what you are reading. Feel free to write if that is your style.
- Explain this concept/theory to your friends/peers/parents. You can explain it to yourself. Now here comes the silver lining when explaining it to your peer/friend/parent or yourself then notice it there are any gaps or points which you have missed. It can also be a feeling of dissatisfaction with your explanation.
- Review the explanation which you have given, find areas where you were not able to explain a point, or you have used complex terms as a substitute. Go back and learn them again or review them to have a better understanding of your fault areas or problem areas.
- Now go back and rehearse in your mind the concept/theory You do that by explaining to yourself. Now check it again if you are satisfied with your explanation or if there were discrepancies when you are explaining to somebody or rehearsing in mind.
Feynman technique applies to process and reprocessing of information in different ways. This enables learning to be incorporated in long term memory block.
This is tried and tested way of faster understanding of concepts/ideas/theories. Your time is reduced, and you are putting smart effort instead of reading it again and again.
I am sure many of you found your new resolutions fervor to dissipate after one or maybe 2/3 weeks. We make plans in hope do change ourselves for better, to inculcate good habits or to do something which reflects positively on us and as well on others.
But sooner or later our enthusiasm towards fulfilling our resolutions seems to expire. And we forget it like every other new year resolution that has happened already.
Obviously, every one of us wishes the contrary to what happens to most of us. Is that we succeed in fulfilling our resolutions even if we don’t get what we wanted at least effort should be there.
Here are 7 ways you can stick longer to your new year resolutions:
7 Hacks to stick to your New Year Resolution
Write it somewhere
Where you can go back see whenever you don’t feel like committing to your goal/resolution. Writing your goal can work better if you aren’t keen on making your resolutions public. Also, since nobody knows even if you fall short you are your own judge so there is scope for betterment.
Find people with the same resolutions or similar ones.
This way you get to make new friends or maybe strengthen existing ones. By finding people with same/similar resolutions you knowingly or unknowingly are in healthy competition with each other. You use peer pressure for committing to a resolution.
Find a strong reason for it.
Sometimes all we need is the reason to push ourselves in the right direction. Hence, you should find a very good reason for your resolution. This will help you persevere longer. A weak reason would have a weaker motivation to comply with.
Set your resolution like your alarm.
Remind yourself if not every day then at least thrice a week about what your resolution is and more importantly why you are doing it. The resolution will be easily forgotten if not reminded.
Recommended – 10 Hacks to Improve Your Memory That Actually Works
Change your Perspective
We usually see are resolutions in terms of gain/loss. This is a problem. Whatever you are trying to achieve see it as self-investment. Example, we want to look fit to better our chances of finding a beautiful partner. What if we don’t find it. This way resolution will suffer a setback. Better to see the resolution of achieving fitness through a lens of self-Investment. Don’t you want to look your best version?
Use an android/other application to track your commitment.
There various applications which help you track your goals and targets. Why not use it. Some of them are Goal tracker, My Journey, Loop, Remente and others.
It helps. You have set a resolution and you need motivations, especially during the troughs. Don’t give up on yourself as there is already an ocean of people doubting you. Have faith in yourself. Wake up with enthusiasm even if you have to force it through your nerves and find time to fulfill your resolution.
At the end whatever your commitment/resolution is. You should set out with determination and discipline. You will achieve it.
Leaving with a quote
“To Hope Is to give yourself a future and that commitment to future makes the present inhabitable “
The government sector is a lucrative sector when it comes to job security, salary, and workload (which is less than the private sector). Many of us aspire to work in or with Government.
However, many govt jobs require specific requirements largely pertaining to what you did in your graduation.
This limits our scope and chance to get in the government. But there is no need to worry as there are many exams which require you to have graduation in any field. In the post, we have put together some government exams any graduate can give.
Government Exams Any Graduate Can Give
1 – Civil Services Exam
Civil services conducted by Union Public Service Commission(UPSC) require any graduate with minimum graduation percentage. It is the most coveted examination India.
Students selected here work at top positions in government at officer level.
Salary is 60,000 INR monthly.
2 – Combined Defence Services
This exam is also one the reputed exams, conducted by UPSC. However, non-engineering students can apply in OTA (officers’ training academy) and IMA (Indian Military academy) only.
Upon clearing the exam and undergoing training you are posted as a Class 1 officer in the Army.
Salary is 60,000 INR monthly.
3 – Probationary Officer exam in Public Sector Bank (PSB),
Public sector banks are government-owned financial institutions. Which provide attractive career goals with good salary.
Its exam is conducted by IBPS (Institute of Banking Personnel Selection).
However, currently, many banks are conducting individual exams, which provides MBA in banking and finance with a job in that bank itself.
Gross salary is 42,000 INR monthly.
4 – Administrative officer in Govt Owned Insurance Company
On similar lines with banking exam, this is an attractive option. It provides a higher salary than any bank. Your work load is also less.
If you are preparing for bank exams be sure not to miss it.
Salary is 60,000 INR monthly.
5 – SSC combined level graduate exam
Staff selection commission conducts exams at the graduate level for any graduate. These jobs are attractive in terms of salary and work.
Many of its jobs are at inspector level, junior officer level or section officer in Govt of India.
Most of the jobs are Delhi based.
Salary is variably but roughly around 40,000 INR monthly.
6 – RBI Grade B officer
RBI (Reserve bank of India) conducts graduate level exam for the officer at the Grade B level. Do not confuse it with B Grade. As in RBI, you start from Grade A then Grade B then Grade C … then finally the governor who is boss man of RBI.
Grade B officer is paid 75,000 INR monthly.
You start as an officer in RBI.
7 – Bank Clerk in PSB
This is also applicable for any graduates. It also is conducted by IBPS for public sector banks. The good thing about this job is that you are posted in your city only and not posted elsewhere.
Till your retirement, you will be posted in your city/state but could be transferred from one branch to another.
As bank clerk, you get around 25,000-30,000 INR monthly.
These are the jobs which give you an opportunity to work in government. These careers have good career paths and job security.
Doctor Ivan Pavlov conducted a famous study in the field of Behavioral Psychology referred to as classical conditioning. He later won Nobel in 1904. Classical conditioning is associated with behaviorism.
We have two types of responses one which voluntary and other which is involuntary. These Responses are invoked with respect to a stimulus. To understand Dr. Ivan Pavlov study there are two things:
1. Unconditioned stimulus, a stimulus which naturally and unconditionally triggers a target response.
2. Conditioned stimulus is an alternative stimulus to the natural stimulus (which is unconditional stimulus) which evokes the same response as that when a natural stimulus is produced.
Pavlovian Experiment summary: Doctor Pavlov conducted an experiment with dogs where food was put in front of dogs and the bell was rung to indicate that food was present.
The food was accompanied with a sound of the bell which produced eventually produced a conditioned stimulus. The dogs used to salivate whenever food was kept in front of them, this is what can be categorized as an Unconditional response.
However, whenever food was presented the bell rang. This eventually made dogs associate food with bell and made them salivate even when only when the bell rang even if no food was presented. This is known as conditioned stimuli.
In dogs, the bell ringing which was alternative stimuli produced a natural response which was salivating when they used to see food. So, when the bell rang dogs were salivating if or if not the food was present.
Where is classical conditioning is being used?
1. Drug abuse/ alcoholics, people are conditioned to limit/reduce drug abuse or reduce alcohol consumption.
2. Stopping or eliminating bad habits.
3. Training armed forces and military.
4. Coping up with addictions
5. Is being used to train wild animals to not encroach neighboring agricultural fields.
6. Improving Learning Behavior and Education sector.
7. Promoting vegetarianism or vegan lifestyle and many more.
Pavlovian conditioning is one of the most crucial study/experiment in the field of psychology, especially behavioral psychology. That has contributed to various sectors in the industry be it education, military, consumer industry, etc.
HSP stands for highly sensitive person, Doctor Elaine Aron is credited with this research finding. She has worked on it for more than two decades since the early 90s.
Her research suggests, that around 15-20 percent of people are HSP. Also, it is not a disorder. It is innate, meanings it’s in your genes. Brains of highly sensitive individuals work a little different from the others. It is seen in animals also as a survival state in animals by observing before acting.
It is not typically associated with introverts. Around 30 percent of extroverts are HSP. So even if you are an extrovert, introvert or even an ambivert then you should have look at it.
If you are a Highly Sensitive Person, then
16 Signs You are Highly Sensitive Person
1. You are a deep thinker
You are often engaged in your thoughts, they never seem to leave you. Most of the times you are thinking about something or the other. You are a person who usually feels engaged in reflection and introspection.
2. You seek answers to questions that most would ignore,
Since you are a deep thinker you engage in many questions to life and its meaning. You have that philosophical bent of mind.
3. Empathize strongly,
If you often see yourself empathizing rather than sympathizing, then probably you are a Highly Sensitive Person. HSP individuals strongly feel the pain of the others. Hence empathizing comes naturally to them.
4. A Coffee might give you a headache,
In most cases, coffee helps you with your headache but here it can give a headache. Since you are sensitive to the effects of caffeine.
5. You get Uncomfortable with loud noises,
You are predisposed to prefer silence and you get irritated easily with loud music or noise.
6. You get overwhelmed with strong smells, sirens and bright lights,
Being a highly sensitive person, you are susceptible to bright lights and strong smells.
7. You are detail oriented,
You are very careful about any task assigned to you. You do proper planning and test drills before the actual event.
8. You abhor change,
You get annoyed or shaken up if someone changes your room, get transferred to another place and other changes in life.
9. You consciously make an effort to avoid an overwhelming situation,
An HSP makes an effort to avoid situations which will be a sensory overload for him/her. HSP tries to avoid situations that would make him/her upset.
10. Test anxiety almost comes naturally to you,
Ever felt nervousness or anxiety continuing during exam or test. An HSP can relate you to it. You perform worse if you are being observed or are in the test environment with competitors.
11. You need time off from sensory overload,
You have a place where you find solace. You often tend to retire to a quiet place after being overwhelmed/ sensory overload.
12. You know about your environment like a fox,
You are a fox when comes to sensing your environment, without looking you are aware of what is going on around you. This comes with the fact that you easily get stimulated.
13. You often get startled by the sudden noise,
You get frightened easily from sudden movements or sudden noises.
14. You hate making mistakes,
You make efforts not to make mistakes or errors. As a result, you carefully deliberate over things and make sure there is no chance that you make errors.
15. You know what’s going on,
Your complex understanding of things and general observant nature makes you a perceptive person, who knows who is angry and when? For that you don’t need to ask, you just know.
16. You are highly self-aware,
Being an HSP is not so bad, as you are the master self-awareness since you are analytical and deep thinker this comes naturally to you.
Being HSP is not a disadvantage it makes you more receptive and responsive to your environment. You’re probably like Peter Parker (Spiderman) whose senses keep ting a ling when danger or uncertainty is ahead.
Psychology is a study of mind and behavior. Psychology is currently gaining momentum due to demand of growing industry and increased awareness with regard to mental health issues.
Indian society is currently progressing towards accepting psychology as vital science and not just for the demented. Today 1 in 5 people require counseling either psychological or psychiatric. Over 5 crore people suffer from depression in India. We need Psychology for a better understanding of ourselves and those around us.
In India, you can do your masters and then M.Phil. to start up your career as a psychologist. Usually, those who have done Graduation in psychology apply for masters in psychology. However, some colleges do accept direct admission to the master’s program.
Example, Delhi University (DU) also takes an entrance test, in which students who have done graduation from DU or DU recognized colleges students can give the test provided the scored 60% or above.
Here are top career paths as psychology student that you can pursue,
The main job of organizational Psychologists is to see well being of individuals in an organization. They help to improve the productivity of the workplace.
You are hired by MNC’s to promote productivity in the workplace.
Salary depends on two factors your work experience and academics.
Entry level you get around 30,000 INR monthly,
whereas with 3-4 years of work experience you would be getting anywhere between 50,000 – 60,000 INR monthly, also depending on your academic’s qualifications whether you are Ph.D. or master’s or graduate.
Usually, here you work in Health institutions, Education Sector, Industry, and government. Usually, as a counselor you deal with less severe mental health issues. This indicates the difference between a Counselor and clinical psychologists.
Entry level you get around 20,000 to 30,000 INR monthly
With some years of work experience, you can get easily 50,000INR monthly.
Become a Psychiatrist
For this career, the plan has to be executed in 10 standards itself. In 12 std you must have biology as one of the subjects. And do MBBS (undergraduate program) and then postgraduate degree which MD.
NIMHANS (National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences) is the best institute to further your career.
As a Psychiatrist, you earn around 75,000 INR monthly.
Learning disorders, Family related problems, Stress, Peer problems, Anxiety, and other issues are your forte. Your expertise is helping both children and their parents help deal with issues.
Here also your qualifications and experience matter.
With a Ph.D. which specializes in child psychology, you can easily earn 50,000 – 60,000 INR monthly.
You treat disorders and severe mental health issues. As a clinical psychologist, you treat mental, behavioral and emotional issues. A clinical psychologist best industry initiation could be through M.Phil. program.
Here, work experience is important, also salary is variable as some give more than others on average you get 20,000 INR monthly initially.
Later graduating to 50,000 INR monthly depending upon company/organization, experience, and academic qualifications.
There are other careers one can choose in psychology like become Sports Psychologist, Forensic Psychologist, Consumer Psychologist, Military Psychologists, and many others. Though these fields in abroad provide a good earning standard in India are yet to fruition into attractive career goals.
Best of luck!!
Have you ever faced discrimination? Have you ever felt that you are being treated inferior in comparison to your co-worker? Or Have you ever felt that your sibling gets treated favorably and you are discriminated?
How Discrimination affects you?
I am sure many of you can relate to the above stated.
Discrimination has sociological and psychological implications. Many of us aren’t aware of it or probably take it as a bad day or feel upset for some time. However, discrimination has implications which one should definitely have a look at.
James Elliot conducted an experiment in 1970 with her third-grade class students. This experiment was called The Class divided.
James Elliot was a feminist, an Anti-racist, a school teacher and an activist. She conducted this experiment the day after Martin Luther King got assassinated.
The Class Divided
On the day Martin Luther got assassinated, the children were having a hard time imagining why someone would kill him. The next day she divided the class into brown-eyed and blue-eyed children. She deliberately didn’t divide them on basis of race to identify the genetic basis of discrimination.
Initially, the blue-eyed children defended the brown-eyed but gradually hierarchy got established. Since teacher asserted general superiority of blue-eyed over brown-eyed children. She even gave 5 minutes extra to blue-eyed children in recess. She remarked on the intelligence of brown-eyed as inferior to blue-eyed children. She even gave blue-eyed children blue scarfs to wear around the collar.
The results were startling. The blue-eyed gradually started to discriminate with the brown-eyed as inferior ones. They mocked them and even told the teacher to use a ruler to set them straight.
Discrimination had affected even the most innocent of all (the children).
James Elliot later regressed in saying that brown-eyed were superior to blue-eyed. This allowed blue-eyed to experience discrimination what brown eyed were facing.
Her students in this way experienced demoralization and humiliation through discrimination. Both groups realized that how the color of eye or skin is not a determinant of your personality(of who you are as a person).
That person shouldn’t be judged on basis of how they look. That if you chose to judge then it’s not what’s outside that matters but what’s on inside.
Hence, discrimination subtly affects even the good ones or innocent people. We should be self-aware and mindful enough to not imbibe values which encourages discriminatory behavior.
George Miller in 1956 had published a paper, The magic no seven, plus/minus two, propounding on the limit of short-term memory.
Ever wondered why pin/area codes or phone numbers are not more than 6 to 10 numbers long. In fact, in earlier days telephone numbers were around 7 numbers long. For example, pin code for Delhi is 110001 (six numbers long).
Miller proposed that our short-term memory can remember 5-9 items at one time if items were of same nature. Which ranges to the number 7, The Magical Number Seven.
What was the experiment?
Miller had tested set of individuals by assigning different tones varying only in pitch to produce a stimulus linked to a learned response from the study subjects. This research showed that performance was perfect up to 7th stimulus but after that, it declined upon increasing the stimulus which simply meant that after 7th tone the subjects had trouble recognizing.
This suggested that humans can essentially store about 2-3 bits of information in short-term memory. [1 bytes = 8 bits]
What is short-term memory?
For a simplistic understanding, there are essentially two types of memory centers, short term, and long term. The short-term memory block is like a cache memory of the computable device, a runtime memory.
It is easily forgettable. Only a few items go to the long-term memory block. However, both these processes are independent of each other. That is a person whose short-term memory is damaged can still have long-term memories.
Then, how is it possible that some people can memorize vast data only by glancing at it?
This happens by creating a large volume of data into smaller chunks. And in some ways, people have used memory palace to memorize sequences of numbers or words.
Example, 9634037894 this is a random set of 10-digit number. To memorize it faster there can be two ways:
1. Memorize by forming smaller chunks 9634-037-894. Now you can easily remember it.
2. Play with the information, use position, placement, association and chunking into small sets. Just by looking at the number you can notice that 4 is placed at 4th and last position so no need to memorize, now notice 9 -6 -3 comes before the fourth letter which is four and multiples of 3 in reverse order, left is 037 which is after 4th number and 89 just before the last letter.
Now you can remember it with less mental effort. Even a random 10-digit number.