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Use the 80/20 rule to get good marks

Reading Time: 3 minutes

Vilfredo Fritz Pareto, an Italian polymath. He was an engineer, sociologist, political scientist and economist. He is famous for his book ‘Manual of political economy’ and for pareto’s principle.

 

It is this Pareto’s Principle that you can apply to make your study effective. Pareto’s principle is also called “Law of the vital few”.

 

To put it simply “ roughly 80% of effects/results come from 20 percent of causes”. This wonderful discovery of pareto happened when he observed that in his garden 20 percent of pea pods produced 80 percent of the peas.

 

During his stay in Lausanne he had discovered that 20 percent of the people in Italy owned 80 percent of the land. Pareto in 1909 had published it in book stating that this principle generally can be applied to wealth and other things and that this rule could be observed in any generation of any society.

 

Taking further, this 80/20 rule can be generally be applied to,

 

  • Investment
  • Studying
  • Farming
  • Marketing
  • Business
  • Trading
  • Economics
  • Research

 

And many more you can think of. Vilfredo pareto was able to discover that this using mathematics as a tool in political science and sociology.

 

Using 80/20 when studying,

 

What is 80/20 rule?

When applying to studying it is your 80 percent of result will come for 20 percent of your studying particular topics.

 

What does above imply?

This means that in your course there are some topics which are more important than others. This also means that areas you should focus on should not be even but weighted and not a constant, when it comes to focusing your attention and directing your efforts.

 

How do you go about it?

 

The first thing that you should do is to study the previous years papers to find what all questions are coming in the exam.

 

Usually, you will find some pattern. You will get to know from which topics the questions are usually coming. This essentially means that there are some topics which are more important than others. Some topics or sections from where the questions are regularly coming and other topics usually are not so popular with paper setters.

 

What does 80/20 have to do with studying previous year question papers?

Precisely everything, through this 80/20 rule you know that there are some topics which are of more importance than the others. This means your studying effort should not be evenly distributed but weighted accordingly. According to 80/20 rule your 80 percent of paper will come from 20 percent of the topics. (assuming these are exact or fixed estimates but a good estimate)

 

Sounds wonderful, doesn’t it, yes it is !

 

To make it simple, an example,

Supposedly there are 5 topics in a test that you have to prepare :

You should as stated above complete your assessment of previous years papers and mock tests, notice which of the topics are more prominently coming in your tests. Mark those topics, these are topics you should focus more on. For example topic 1 and topic 4 are more important as most questions are coming from these. You should focus more on them as compared to other topics.

 

This means that your effort is not evenly divided but distributed unevenly in your topics that you have to prepare.

 

So, apply 80/20 here, your test shall comprise of majority of questions coming from topic 1 and topic 4, rest 20 percent would be coming from others. Hence, your efforts should be best directed to topic 1 and topic 4 and other topics should be revised but your priority is topic 1 and topic 4.

 

Here it is, another smart way to study or prepare for an exam. And by the way this rule can be applied elsewhere also, just have to be creative.

 

Goodluck !

 

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Top 5 absolutely free digital marketing certifications

Reading Time: 3 minutes

 

 

In age of digital marketing many businesses by being digital have established Global or National presence. The need to have substantial presence is the need of the hour. Since businesses have gone digital their marketing also has become digital.

 

Digital marketing provides for job opportunities beyond conventional marketing jobs. Your work would be using SEO (search engine optimization) tools to market better on digital landscape. This not necessarily requires salesman skills but an understanding of how search engines work and certain skills which are technical regarding promotion of business over the internet.

 

Digital marketing in India provides for modest earning if you are new to it or have just acquired it or are just entering the industry. This salary as entrant would be 25,000 INR monthly to an experienced person earning more than 1 lakh per month.

 

Here are top FREE certifications which you can get in Digital Marketing:

 

The certification provided by Google, is designed for entrepreneurs and new entrants to Digital Marketing. You can be assured of learning the basics of digital marketing. This can set your base for a good certification later.

 

Since Google provides certification, you can be assured its authentic.

READ also Awesome Free Online Courses

 

 

Alison is also another great certification platform where you can get certifications for free. However, you just have to sign up. It is a global presence and is one of the largest entity that provides free learning and free certifications.

 

Alison certifications are market relevant. You can look up for other courses.

 

 

A Digital Marketing course created by Sorav Jain provided by Udemy. Provides for 5.5 hours of video lectures on demand. Covers the basics of online marketing. You will also get a certifications at completion of course.

 

Since, this is a basic course you will learn the basics and familiarity with SEO, Analytics, etc.

 

 

It provides for free courses pertaining to digital marketing, blog marketing, SEO, email marketing, e-commerce marketing etc. It provides free e-book and have to pass an exam to get certified. The passing score is 50 percent and you can also retake the exam.

 

 

This marketing course is also absolutely free. Provided by MIT entrepreneurs collaborated to provide marketing certification and strategies. There are some courses for free whereas others are charged.

 

Hubspot is provides for courses which taught by marketing experts. A 5-hour course program which is absolutely free.

 

There are many other courses like Blueprint certification by Facebook, Digital marketing courses on edX, Linkedin Marketing courses etc. However, these courses are paid or require price payment for certifications.

 

The digital marketing course can certainly benefit your profile and make your resume credible, If you looking to enter digital marketing then such certifications can provide for foundation on which you can learn digital marketing.

 


Photo credits

Google, Alison, Udemy, e-Marketing Institute, Hubspot

 

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How to stop procrastination and get things done

Reading Time: 4 minutes

 

Procrastination is a habit or tendency which delays or postpones the work that we have scheduled for ourselves. It is a tendency displayed by the person who delays a task indefinitely without any substantive reason.

 

Procrastination is common to everyone, this means that nearly everyone experiences it. Procrastination from Academics point of view has concerns regarding efficiency and productivity. Some intelligent and smart students suffer from procrastination which get reflected in their scores.

 

Your procrastination would look something like this if you plot it on graph:

 

As you can see that productivity is affected when you are starting a task or ending a task. There can be other variables but to simplify this, above two graph explains procrastination grossly.

 

There are primarily two areas where you seem to display dip in productivity. Starting or ending are points of concern over here. You can do the following to help yourself reduce or even eliminate procrastination.

 

Some strategies to cope up with procrastination,

 

 

  • Dive in head first if you see yourself procrastinating,

If you see or observe that you are procrastinating probably taking time to even start a task because of any reason than best would be to Just get started even if you are not mentally prepared. This will help you break the habit of delaying a task unintentionally.

 

 

 

 

  • Become Mindful,

You must be aware of yourself think about why you are doing what you are doing. Sometimes it could be lethargy, other times it could be uncertainty or sometimes you are affected by your mood. Once you get to know what is causing your procrastination it will easy to remedy it.

 

 

 

 

  • Follow a routine, Stick to it

Following a routine which will help you think less and do more. Routines are best way to eliminate procrastination. The habit itself will help you reduce procrastination.

 

 

  • Don’t do too much of planning,

Too much of planning is counter productive. Best would be to survey a task and break your tasks into micro tasks which will help you focus on constituent tasks. Too much of planning will eat away your time and you would be thinking more about how to do the task rather than doing the task.

 

 

  • Eliminating distractions,

Distractions are what drive your procrastination. Work or doing a task is universally boring unless you are one of those who love working. Best way is to know what are the distractions that fuel your Procrastination. Example, you often look at social media through your phone when doing a task, or watch videos on youtube when doing a task or in between a task.

 

 

  • Practice delayed gratification,

Delaying your gratification helps develop an habit to focus on tasks and not get distracted. As suggested delayed gratification can help you become an achiever. This can help you become more disciplined and habitual to perform the task. You can read more on stanford marshmallow experiment.

 

 

 

  • Don’t think too much about the outcome or result,

Often when we are starting a task we nervous or anxious about the outcome. This causes unnecessary delay in starting a task. Best is to be rational and avoid over thinking on outcomes or results. Outcome is not something in your control but effort is. If you believe in yourself, know yourself and your ability. Then by being rational and not thinking much about outcome you should get on with it.

 

 

 

  • Don’t be harsh on yourself, to increase productivity take short breaks.

Be kind to yourself, sticking for long hours reduces your productivity. You might have observed that after a prolonged hour of study session you find yourself watching a YouTube video or Facebook and you realize that much time is lost. Best is to take break when you feel a little exhausted doing a task. And don’t take a break there where you are doing a task but elsewhere so that you remind yourself to return to completing the task or study session.

 

 

We all have experienced it or experience it on frequent basis. The point is to make an effort to change is what will make the real difference.

 

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The NIIT University Experience: Campus Visit

NIIT UniversityReading Time: 3 minutes

We are starting a new series of articles. Especially focusing on campus experiences. In this post, we cover our experience of NIIT University, Neemrana. Check it out.

 

Recently I and Bikram, the co-founder of Brainpundits, were lucky enough to be invited to visit the NIIT university campus. This post is about our experience there in the wonderful campus.

 

Beautiful Campus

 

As soon as you enter the vast campus of this recently built university, the first thing you notice is the vast number of trees around it. We are told that the whole land was once barren. And it has been an initiative by the campus itself to make it a green campus with trees all around it.

It is a sprawling campus full of passion and a vision of a strong future. The university, for now, mainly has programs related to engineering and management. As the courses range from B.Tech. to an integrated M.B.A. but after a conversation with teachers, there are plans to bring in later courses revolving around social sciences.

 

Seamlessness

 

The whole ethos of the campus revolves around one idea: Seamlessness. It means rediscovering the symbiotic relationship between nature and humanity. Not only the architecture of the campus signifies a reconnect with nature, as boundaries seamlessly mingle. But also, the spirit of seamlessness is within the faculty and students.

The infrastructure of the university is strong as it boasts hostels for both boys and girls. It is a residence university as the students have to live at the campus during their courses. A well-stocked library is complemented by curious students.

The university’s vision also features the seamless assimilation of students from NIIT campus to various big companies in the industry. It aims to fight the state of higher education in India. In a recent report, it was found that almost 80% of Indian graduates are unemployable.

 

Making things Right

 

The university aims to amend this by making the students industry ready right from the start. Courses here are research-driven, right from the start which makes it a unique place. Then there are individual research projects being headed by various faculty members on various topics.

At dinner, we meet and interact with some of the students of the university Their faces and thoughts are on the same plane with that of the university’s goals and vision. They are full of bright ideas and looking forward to their individual futures. But also mindful of the environment and how their actions affect the nature around them.

 

A campus to remember

 

Next morning, we wake up early for a little trek. The beauty of the campus is further magnified as one watches it from a hilltop. There we also plant two saplings, symbolising our connect with the place for futures to come. It is a tradition of NIIT University that every visitor plants a tree. It is a heart-warming gesture and one that we will remember for a long time.

If you happen to have some time from your busy schedule, then try visiting the university. It’s around 100 km away from Delhi and nestled around the Aravali hills. Your visit will definitely change the way you think about life and this world. Also the importance of sustainable living and education.

This is a first of kind blog post and we will cover more as we visit new and different campuses. Till then cheers and keep exploring yourself with Brainpundits!

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The SQ3R method of studying effectively

Reading Time: 3 minutes

 

Studying can be a task. If only it could be done rather efficiently and effectively. Often we study book from cover to cover. This article brings in an effective studying approach which can reduce your mental strain and effort. It was propounded by Francis P. Robinson. The SQ3R method.

Francis Pleasant Robinson, a popular educational psychologist, is the inventor of this effective method of studying. During his time in Ohio State University, he worked with an assessment team which worked on studying skills and habits of the new recruits in the army during World War 2. They used the data to devise certain high level strategies for learning and skill development.

 

Later Robinson’s book effective study outlined SQ3R method which suggests and effective way of studying. This method provides a systematic way of studying in less time.

 

What does SQ3R stand for?

 

Survey

Question

Read

Recite

Review

In essence this should be your approach when you are venturing to read a text.

 

Using SQ3R technique?

 

  • Survey

Read the index and preface to get an idea of how you are going to approach. Your survey of the book should be of finding target areas (example concepts,facts) which are important for your exam/assignment. A cursory reading of sub topics and sub dimensions given in the book will certainly help. The survey should be short, usually not more than 5 – 7 minutes.

 

read here study hacks

 

  • Question

Now after completion of survey, ask questions to yourself regarding the text you just surveyed. Use the subheadings and dimensions given to form queries. What happens is, this way of questioning will increase your general curiosity and interests in text you are going to delve into. The questions you form, write them down in a workbook systematically.

 

 

  • Read

Post jotting down questions to the text you just surveyed, go for hunting the answers in the text. Only this time be alert and more focused than you were when surveying. Read areas of concern/importance very carefully and thoughtfully. Read twice/thrice if required.

 

 

  • Recite

Now comes the challenging part, try to answer the questions which you had written earlier in your own language and briefly (suggested). At this point note down what important points are required (should make notes in your own words). These notes will provide a basis for reviewing material later.

 

Make sure that you don’t copy from the book and write very briefly about the topic. This uses kinaesthetic form learning which equally important as other forms of learning.

 

  • Review

After completing everything, the final step is to read the notes you have made by reviewing them at spaced intervals (an hour, next day, after a week). The way you shall go about reviewing is to recite in your mind all the major sub heads, dimensions with what they are implying. Through this you will work on recalling material when revising. In essence you are reinforcing what all you have read.

 

This method of reading was later introduced to graduates also. Mr Robinson had published this method in his book effective study (1946). The book outlines ways to improve on study methods and acquiring effective study skills.

 

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Rise of Liberal Arts Courses in India: All You Need to Know

RISE OF LIBERAL ARTS COURSES IN INDIAReading Time: 4 minutes

Do you feel like doing something different in your Undergraduate course? Want to explore various disciplines in degree? Then this post is for you as we will discuss the rise and scope of Liberal arts courses in India. Read on. 

 

There has been a rise in Liberal Arts courses in India. Various new universities are coming up, specifically focusing on courses around liberal arts. In 2015, the govt also initiated to invest more in research universities, liberal arts, and social sciences to improve the rankings of Indian universities.

 

What is Liberal Arts?

But let us first explain what Liberal arts is all about. The focus of liberal arts courses is having an interdisciplinary bent to it. This need arose because of various reports arguing that almost 80% of Indian graduates are unemployable. Hence, the focus is now shifting towards a more holistic education program in India.

The idea is to hone a student’s reasoning, basic mathematical and writing skills – in every aspect. With this, the student is able to do any kind of job irrespective of what actual content one is taught. These skills are the main focus of these interdisciplinary courses.

 

Benefits

Students, who have done these courses have actually stood out in their workplaces. This happens because being taught through different perspectives and lenses, they approach problems from various vantage points. They also end up having strong interpersonal skills and these all are attributes of a strong liberal arts education.

The students improve upon their soft skills, leadership skills, communication skills and gain a more holistic lends towards life. With the focus being more on the expression of ideas – in the form of academic writing, ethics, and environmental studies.

 

Top Universities Offering Liberal Arts Courses

 

Now, let’s have a look at some of the top universities that offer Liberal arts courses in India.

 

Ashoka University, Delhi

Ashoka University is a unique institution in India. It is largely a philanthropic institution with over 40 founding members. Also, One of the most promising institutes for higher education in India. It is largely famous for its Young India Fellowship (YIF) program, which we covered in an earlier post.

But there are other courses in this university, especially Undergraduate and Graduate courses focusing on Liberal Arts. The structure of the course is similar to courses abroad, with having three elements: minor, major and certain foundation courses.

Students have options to pick from a range of subjects – from maths to political science, sociology and much more. The focus is on flexibility for the students. There are courses on History and International Relations, B.A. in Politics, B.Sc. in Computer Science and Entrepreneurship and much more. The annual cost comes around 6-8 Lacs. For more details: www.ashoka.edu.in

 

FLAME University, Pune

Another famous university is in Pune. FLAME or Foundation for Liberal and Management Education is one of the oldest institutions focused on liberal arts in India. It is an autonomous university and offers a multidisciplinary course similar to Ashoka University.

The unique thing about this university that it offers courses on music, dance, entrepreneurship, film and tv studies and much more. The average cost comes to around 5-6 Lacs. For more details: www.flame.edu.in

 

Jindal School of Liberal Arts and Humanities, Delhi

This is a very recent school and is part of the OP Jindal University in Haryana. At present, its intake is very focused and hence not that many get admission in this place. The curriculum covered are all the fundamentals of a good liberal arts course.

It offers a range of interesting range of courses from the political economy of and natural resources to the course on desire, law and popular culture and to urban space and much more. They have also started a unique program of residency, called ‘artist-in-residence’ program for their students.

The students also have the option to finish the second half of their 4-year degree program in Florida. The average cost comes around to 6-8 Lacs per year. For more details: www.jslh.edu.in

 

Azim Premji University, Bengaluru

Azim Premji University or APU was initially set up in 2001 as part of the Azim Premji Foundation with a purpose to enhance learning. Its objective was to help students becomes outstanding professionals in the domain of development.

To realize this, the institution has taken an interdisciplinary approach in the makeup of its courses. Apart from standard Undergraduate courses, the university offers courses on combined humanities. The students also have the option of selecting minors from sciences, economics, development studies, and data sciences.

The key objective of the university is to contribute towards making India a just, equitable, humane and sustainable society. The average cost comes around to 2-4 Lacs per year. For more details: www.azimpremjiuniversity.edu.in

 

Symbiosis School for Liberal Arts, Pune

Another very famous school of Liberal arts is the Symbiosis School for Liberal Arts or SSLA. The school offers the students to do a four-year fulltime Bachelors in Liberal Arts. It is a structured program and based on international models.

Its main is to bring to students a wide range of courses to pick from and choose minor and majors according to their liking. For example, a student can have a business major with an anthropology minor and various contrasting combinations.

The average cost comes around to 2-4 Lacs per year. For more details: www.ssla.edu.in

 

To Conclude

 

There is a changing trend in Indian education and these universities have taken a step towards initiating change. By focusing on interdisciplinary courses, the trend is now towards a more holistic environment. So, if you want to do a more comprehensive Undergraduate course then these are some of the most lucrative options. Till then cheer and keep exploring yourself with Brainpundits.

 

 

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What Does ASER report 2018-19 say about education in India

ASER ReportReading Time: 2 minutes

ASER report is published by NGO Pratham. The annual report presents the state of education in India. The report focuses on education and quality of education which is provided in India.

 

ASER 2018 has covered about 600 districts. In its report, it has found that overall enrollment has increased up to 96 percent. However, the study has revealed that the learning deficit is increasing. Due to this learning deficit, it reflected in adulthood making people less capable.

 

The report’s findings,

 

  • Slightly more than half of all children enrolled in class 5 can read at least a standard 2 level text.
  • Gender Gaps have been reducing over time.
  • About 44% of all children in standard 8 can solve a 3-digit by 1-digit numerical division problem correctly.
  • In basic arithmetic, boys seem to hold an advantage. Nationally, 50% of all boys in the age group 14 to 16 can correctly solve a division problem as compared to 44% of all girls.
  • Government school children in some states are doing significantly better, with an increase of 3 percentage points or more over 2016.
  • Only 27.2% of class 3 students were able to read the textbook for class 2 students.
  • Only 50.3% of class 5 students were able to read the books prescribed to class 3 student.

 

The report presents findings that paint a sub-optimal image of education in India. Especially, focusing on learning outcomes where children were not able to do simple math and reading the text. Many children were unsuccessful in performing tasks which were meant for students of primary level. What is problematic is learning deficit seems to be widening.

 

In India education is a fundamental right. The state has even amended the constitution and enacted legislation to provide for education that is free from 6-14 years of age. This means that up to 8th standard education is free. However, the very same education is suffering from quality. In all the education provided can make or break a child. A good education will reflect on the capability of a child when he/she becomes an adult, ready to join the workforce.

Education is important for overall development and better decision making.

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How to deal with regression while reading

How to deal with regression while readingReading Time: 2 minutes

Regression happens when we are reading. To explain it simply it means when we are re-reading the text. I am sure almost everyone has gone through regression. It reduces both our reading speed and efficiency.

 

Imagine if it happens to you when you are giving a test and you get stuck with that text/para/lines. Then what will you do? Often what I have observed is that people when reading either

 

 

  • Read it loudly
  • Subvocalize  
  • Would frown
  • Bring text closer to the eyes.

 

Both of the methods prove to be inadequate.

 

Being a voracious reader. I am a daily newsreader. I have extensively read art, literature, nonfiction, meteorology, law, Macro Economics, and politics.

 

Problem is trying to hard or focusing more through facial expression will not help.

 

There are many reasons for regression

Mental Fatigue Poor Comprehensibility Distraction
Stress when reading Disturbances

outside/inside

Not much of Reader

 

One of the basic reasons for you regressing is either the topic which you are reading seems tougher to comprehend or you are not much of a reader.

 

So, you must read as much as you can fighting the regression as it comes along. Progressively, you will tend to regress less than you used to. It is a fact.

 

Some hacks that I use whenever regression happens,  

 

  • If you are reading for a long time and you start to regress/reading the same lines again, then you should probably take a short break, probably a tea break.

 

  • Regression may happen when your text is very closely written and is comprehensive. A textbook with long paragraphs and shorter font should be avoided.  Since reading requires eye movement closely placed text and shorter font will make it likely that you will regress.

 

  • Usually what I have noticed is that eyes tend to vacillate between some lines or a para, re-reading it. This is costly when you are giving an exam. If you notice yourself stuck in regressing, Jump to the next most suitable lines, which your mind is able to comprehend easiest. Skip those lines if required and come back to them after reading whole text/chapter.

 

  • Most important, consciously make an effort to understand whatever you are reading. Let it be slow at first (if it is). Reading is a skill. Any skill takes time to develop, you have to put in practice into it.

 

Regression is not necessarily a bad thing. It might be indicating something, for example, distraction, lack of concentration, boringness with respect to text which you are reading, and disturbances.

 

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Options after 10th: What is Humanities all About?

Humanities Stream in DetailReading Time: 6 minutes

With the board exams going on, we get busy with them. But after the exams, we are faced with a tough choice of choosing between streams. In this post, we cover the stream of Humanities and the core subjects of it. Read on.

 

We all have that moment when someone asks us the question “What do you want to be when you grow up?”. At that moment, our imagination to think about jobs is limited and often driven by the two most talked about jobs. Yes, you know what I am talking about. Either a doctor or an engineer. These are the two ideal jobs that every parent or uncle or aunt talks about.

 

What if you don’t want to be a doctor or an engineer?

 

But what if you realise, by the end of your 10th class, that you do not want to be a doctor or an engineer? And you feel you are not comfortable with numbers or dreaded maths! So, you begin to think, out of all the options arts and humanities is the only available option.

But you, like some of the students fresh out of 10th, feel confused what after arts and humanities? What are the job opportunities in this stream? What are the subjects in this stream all about? As most of your life you have only heard of jobs that fall either in the science stream or the commerce stream and subjects like psychology or political science may feel alien to you!

Fear not! I will ease your stress and help you by explaining the subjects in this stream and future job opportunities that each subject has to offer. But first, you have to get the notion of your mind, and believe me when I say this, that arts and humanities, or social sciences, is not an inferior choice. Rather, it is one of the most challenging fields out there and if one excels in this field the sky is the limit!

 

What is it all about?

So, what is it all about? Social Sciences or arts and humanities is a major category of discipline that studies societies and human relationships within these societies. It includes subjects like Economics, Political Science, Sociology, History, Geography, and Psychology.

You should note though, that is not an exhaustive list and there are other subjects as well but for now, we will focus on these as these are the options available when you enter 11th class. Another thing to note, all these subjects are interlinked as they are all trying to understand the human society from various perspectives.

 

Economics – Or How Money Works?

 

Economics as a branch of social science is concerned with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services of a country. It studies how individuals, companies, governments, and nations make decisions on allocation of resources to satisfy their wants and needs and also studies on they should do it in a better and organised manner. You will get to learn about the economy of the country and how it works. Do note however that if you do not like maths that much then you may not like economics, as maths is an integral part of economics.

Job opportunities after doing your graduation with economics, one can do a masters in economics and become a data analyst, a stockbroker. One can even do a Ph.D. in economics later on and become an Economist and do research with companies or even advise the government on economic policies.

One can also become a Professor of Economics at a college or a university.  Some of the most famous economists from India have been Amartya Sen (Nobel Laureate) Kaushik Basu, Jagdish Bhagwati, Arvind Subarmanian (former Chief Economic Adviser) and Raghuram Rajan (former IMF chief)

 

Political Science – Is it all about Politics?

 

Most of the students when they hear the term political science they think “arey mujhe politics main nahi jana hai” as they feel the subject just revolve around elections and parties. But it is much more than that as political science as a field is about studying the relationship between flows of power and how it affects human relationships in a society.

A student of political science will not only learn how the institutions of the government work or study about elections and voting behaviour but you will also learn about how power operates within the society and even in the household. It gives you the tools to understand the workings of a society.

Job opportunities after graduation and masters in political science, one can do a Ph.D. and become a research analyst for various research institutes in India, like CSDS (Centre of Studies of Developing Societies). One can also become a political commentator for media outlets.

Apart from that the prospect of teaching, political science is a good subject to have if you’re considering for UPSC exams, especially clearing IAS. Some of the biggest names in political science. Some of the biggest names in political science in India have been Rajni Kothari (founder of CSDS), Pratap Bhanu Mehta (Current VC of Ashoka University), C. Raja Mohan (an expert in Indian Foreign Policy) and various others.

 

Sociology – A Study of Society

Sociology is a field of study concerns itself with the study of structures in the society. By structure, I mean like family, caste, gender, religion, class etc. A sociologist tries to understand the relationship between these structures and how they work and influence human relations.

Job opportunities in the field of sociology are of research analyst, after doing your Ph.D. Apart from that one can also work with NGO’s after one’s masters in sociology. One can also work with ICSSR (Indian Council of Social Science Research) in their funded research projects as a research associate. Some of the famous sociologists from India have been M.N. Srinivas, Dipankar Gupta, Meera Kosambi and various others.

History – More Than Just Dates

We all have that idea about history that it’s filled with dates (oh how we dread the dates! Battle of Panipat anyone?). But I am here to tell you that the subject of history is more than just dates that you had to cram at school.

History as a field of discipline deals with the study of the past events in society. It tries to tell a story, in as many details as possible, to not only describe what might have happened but also try to explain why it may have happened. Domains within history range from economic to social histories of nations.

Job opportunities in the field of History, apart from teaching, after graduation and masters range from being a historian and working with ICHR (Indian Council of Historical Research). One can also work as an archaeologist, which comes as an option later on, and work with the Archaeological Survey of India. Some of the most famous historians from India have been Ramchandra Guha, Bipan Chandra, Satish Chandra, and various others.

 

Geography – The Study of the Earth

Geography is the scientific study of the earth and its physical features and how humans interact with these features. It seeks to understand where things are found, why they are here and how have they evolved.

Geo- means earth and -graphy means to write, meaning to write about the earth. One also learns about the relationship between these features and humans and both influence each other.

Job opportunities in this field range from being a cartographer (geographers who makes maps, graphs, charts, and models), to being surveyors. Specialisation in geography also means jobs in Urban or Rural planning.

Other jobs in this field concern the area of Remote Sensing, that is experts who study floods, earthquakes and other natural phenomena like these. If interested, consider taking admission in Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), Dehradun, which is a premier institute in India.

 

Psychology – The Study of the Human Brain and Emotions

Psychology as a science tries to understand the way humans behave and ask why they behave the way they behave. The field of psychology is broad and has various aspects to it, ranging from cognitive, social, neurological etc. It is the scientific study of the human mind and its behaviour.

Job opportunities in this field after masters are one of Clinical Psychologist, that is dealing with people who have serious mental disorders and working with them in either hospitals or rehabilitation centers or NGOs.

Another aspect is of Counsellor or Psychiatrist, where one has to meet and give counsel to people to help them with either their internal issues or interpersonal problems. As a counselor, you can work either in therapy centers or in your own clinic, schools or colleges.

If you are interested then you can after graduation getting admission in National Institute of Mental Health and Neuroscience (NIMHANS), Bengaluru as it is premier institute for further research in the field of psychology.

 

To Conclude

So, here you are friends. The Humanities stream explained in detail, alongwith its subjects. In an upcoming post we’ll explain other streams in detail as well. Till then cheers and keep exploring yourself with Brainpundits!

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Fighting Fake News: 8 Tips to Navigate Information on the Internet

8 Tips to Fight Fake News onlineReading Time: 4 minutes

Do you find it hard to trust the information that you get online? Do you get weary of scores of fake news that gets spread with such ease? In this post, we will give out 8 essential tips on how to spot fake news and navigate information on the internet. Read on.

 

This is the age of instant information. We are bombarded by news, information of various kinds from different spheres – especially on the internet. But this has led to the rise of false information and fake news being propagated easily to rile up people’s sentiments and fooling them.

Hence, it is very important to know how to sift out the real from the fake. It is important because misinformation leads to false beliefs and false realities. While there’s always room for subjected ways of living but false information, which is actually leading to deaths in certain cases is extremely wrong and doesn’t bode well for democracy.

So, it is not only our duty to be a well-informed citizen but also imperative for us to expose false information. Here are 8 tips to navigate information on the Internet.

 

Fact-Checking

You might have heard this phrase “fact-checking”, it is a very recent phenomenon. There are actual people who are working as full-time fact checkers. These fact-checkers debunk every false misinformation that gets viral on the internet.

In India, you can check out sites like “Alt-News”, Boomlive, “Smhoaxslayer”, which conduct through fact-checking and help expose misinformation. So, whenever you get that forward on your WhatsApp about something that seems odd, better to fact-check it first.

 

Lateral Reading

 

One key method you should adopt while navigating the internet is the concept of Lateral Reading. Lateral reading simply means that whenever you want to search for any kind of news on the internet, do not focus on one source of information. Rather, open up another site on a new tab and search for more credible sources of information on the same thing.

For example, if you want to know about climate change in detail, don’t stick to just one website for information rather open up more websites. This helps you in sifting out what is being said across the board on an issue, in this case, Climate Change.

 

Going to Trustworthy Sources

 

You also need to have a bunch of trustworthy sources for news and information that are credible. Although almost everyone has some kind of bias involved despite the prevalence of bias there are certain news websites and news agencies that you know you can trust.

For example, my trustable sites are – The Hindu, Indian Express, BBC, New York Times, Reuters.

 

Using Wikipedia

 

Now, we all have heard it from almost everyone – that we should not use Wikipedia for our source of information. Their reasons come from the fact that Wikipedia can be edited by almost anyone.

But that’s not really the case. Wikipedia is actually a pretty good source of information of one thing as a lot of contributors contribute to it. You should use Wikipedia as a part of the lateral reading we suggested. There are various pages in Wikipedia, that are actually locked that can’t be edited by anyone and is moderated by moderators.

The trick of using Wikipedia is to check the sources, which every page has at the end of it. The credibility of the sources gives credibility to that particular wiki page.

 

Evaluating Evidence

Now, suppose if you were to find some information about Climate Change which says that is not happening and it gives certain evidence. The best way to check is to verify that evidence – by doing a lateral reading.

You open up other credible websites to see if that information or evidence is credible or not. So, by doing this you will eventually find out that the evidence given is fake.

 

Evaluating Photos

 

So, you encounter a photo on your WhatsApp or Facebook which seems highly implausible. How do you check the veracity of it? How do see if it is a fake or not?

Well, the simplest way is to do a reverse google search of that image. You take that photo and go to Google images and upload it and search it. It will reverse search to see where that image has been previously used or not. This way you can check the veracity of that photo.

 

Evaluating Data and Infographics

 

You often hear or read on the news about some research conducted on chocolate being healthy for your body. Then you try to find things on the internet to check and you find various kinds of data and infographics. How to know what is reliable?

Well, this is the trickiest part to do but there are ways to check it. First, you will need to go the study cited in that news or in that infographic. Second, after finding that study – go through their methodology and sample size. You can also check it by in which journal is it published and the level citations.

Now, these all are rather tricky to for a normal individual but if you can follow this technique then you can see the way people use statistics to fool people. As it is said there are “Lies, then there are damned lies, and then there are damned statistics”.

 

Click Restraint

 

Finally, you need to practice Click restraint. This means don’t jump to clicking every salacious websites out there. The google search that you do has a lot of options on the page, and we have a habit of clicking the very first two links.

Which is a wrong way as just because they are the first links, doesn’t mean that they are the most reliable or even worth the click. They have sensational headings or sub-headings made in a way to make you click them. These are called Click-baits.

The best way is to go through the entire first page of google search and then decide on what to click and what not to. You can also go to the second page, although I know you may have never done that.

 

 

To Conclude

 

So, these are 8 essential tips to use while navigating information in the age of the internet. It is very important as we all need to aware of actual information and need to stop falling to fake news and false information online. This is a battle we all must face and fight. Till then cheers, and keep exploring yourself with Brainpundits!