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Careers in Law other than becoming a Lawyer

careers other than lawyerReading Time: 5 minutes

Becoming a lawyer in India is essentially the first step towards or rather a prerequisite in fulfilling a criteria in becoming a lawyer. Then comes the most important aspect of it from where does one earn or how does a lawyer earn his/her living. They are many opportunities case in point : fields, which should be chosen carefully keeping in mind the growth opportunities and interests together. There are many careers in law other than becoming a lawyer which provides a good career alternative in the same field.

To simplify, upon completion of your degree you should be aware of the fields and avenues which can better serve your intellect and interest at the same time providing a good salary in hand. Making the right choice is therefore of the utmost importance at the time when you graduate or you are planning ahead. 

The article intends to familiarize law aspirants and school students about the choices they can make when they graduate as Legum Baccalaureus (ie LLB). They can make calculated risk and minimize time wasted post graduating.

 

Here are top avenues career avenues in Law :

 

  • Legal/ Law Officer in bank :

Many banks offer designated specialist officers as Law Officers in bank. The institutions like IBPS (Institute of Banking Personnel) and SBI (State Bank of India) annually announce vacancies. Its like any other regular and salaried jobs.

Chances are you will be posted in metros or cities where there is decent requirement of legal work in banks. S0, posting wise also its good. Exam is conducted annually.

 

  • Public Prosecutor :

A Public Prosecutor is a lawyer who produces represents on behalf of public agency or body. This means Govt of India or Any public body that of state or Union both come under it. Many organisations require public prosecutors example a state police requires public prosecutors, the CBI requires public prosecutors, state prison etc. 

 

The job vacancies are erratic i.e they cannot be predicted nor are annual. This means they come at no fixed time hence one is suggested to keep checking for it. Exam is conducted from time to time.

 

  • District Judge :

Becoming a District Judge is prestigious job which requires a decent amount of preparation. But is rewarding if one gets through it. Therefore an early preparation is certainly an advantage. A district court is 3rd tier of hierarchy of courts in India (meaning Supreme court > High Court > District Court). This in no way means that District court is an inferior court in fact it’s the first level of addressing civil and criminal matters. 

 

Many coaching centers provide coaching especially for these examinations. Also, since there is no All India exam. Such exams are conducted by States depending upon vacancies from time to time. One has to keep a check on exam notification. It’s generally a three tier process including interviews.

 

  • Law Firms :

Placement in a law firm is what probably most students desire. But getting Placed into top Law firms poses a challenge. Getting good grades help, being in top Law school helps but having a good knowledge certainly helps. The Top Law firms offer Placements ranging from 6 lakh to 11 lakh per annum. Therefore getting into a top Law school should be your priority.

 

Some sectors in Law are generally more money making than others. These sectors are handling Divorce cases, Insurance, Negotiable Instruments, Corporate law, Taxation, Competition law, Mergers and acquisitions. 

 

Some of the top Law firms in India :

 

  1. Trilegal
  2. Shardul Amarchand Mangaldas & Co.
  3. Khaitan & Co.
  4. Anand & Anand
  5. Luthra and Luthra
  6. Sagar Associates
  7. AZB & Partners
  8. Vaish associates
  9. J Sagar And Associates(JSA)

 

  • IT Lawyer :

These special class of lawyer are those who have a good understanding of the IT Act 2006 (Information technology act) as well as cyber security law. Those who have done their graduation in computer science other than LLB are well suited candidates for these jobs. Since this combination is a little sparse hence those who have this combination can find good opportunities of getting placed in Top Law firms.

 

  • If you aspire to become a High Court or Supreme Court Judge :

Then you should know that one is appointed to become a HC/SC judge through a Collegium system. Although there is higher judicial exams but is irregular in nature. This means its not conducted regularly or annually. Both District Judges and Advocates (practicing Lawyers) should full fill the Eligibility criteria for appointment to High courts. 

 

The Eligibility for High court judge is :

 

Clause 2 of Article 217 of the Constitution of India, which provides that:

 

“A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge of a High Court unless he is a citizen of India and

 

(a) has for at least ten years held a judicial office in the territory of India; or

 

(b) has for at least ten years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession;

 

The eligibility to become a SC judge is :

 

Clause 3 of Article 124 of the Constitution of India, which provides that:

 

“A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court unless he is a citizen of India and—

 

(a) has been for at least five years a Judge of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession; or

 

(b) has been for at least ten years an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession; or

 

(c) is, in the opinion of the President, a distinguished jurist.

 

Becoming A judge of the High Court and Supreme Court depends on Merit and Subjective assessment of the collegium. One can directly get appointed a judge of HC/SC or one can come by way of getting promoted (i.e from district judge to HC judge or) as judge from HC (high Court) to SC (Supreme Court).

 

  • Legal Assistant :

Entry level jobs provided in private and public sector. Along with a law degree and with adequate knowledge of computers. Needless to say it is typically a desk job. Vacancies crop up from time to time. This position is present in both public and private sectors. 

 

So, these were the career avenues one should look for or aim for. Some of the career avenues provide for faster growth like working in corporate law firms etc while others provide stability and prestige like becoming a District Judge. In all cases mentioned above, there are if not great, then above average pay opportunities when one talks about a career avenues in law field. 

Read also – How to become a lawyer in India 

Hope you liked !

Brainpundits

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How to get better at Reading Comprehension

brainpundits -Get better at reading comprehensionReading Time: 4 minutes

Reading comprehension seems to be a challenge to many. Right from the school to adulthood. One is tested mostly in every competitive examination. It seems to be a mystery to many as well as a challenge to most when it comes to reading and answering questions. Most importantly it comes to our dismay when we see it that we have performed sub-optimally in it.  

This also means that many a time it is impossible to even assess that we have done justice to reading comprehension. We might feel we have attempted it to the best of our abilities but results speak otherwise. 

Reading comprehensions are different from solving a math questions.

Not to forget I admit there is a bit of ambiguity. But to be honest you can’t do much about the ambiguity. Will talk about that ambiguity later. Many teachers and tutors or probably your peers give an impression that 100% accuracy can be achieved. I would like to tell you that this is merely a facade. You can never actually be a 100% achiever in Reading Comprehension every time you are made to give a test on it. However, you can definitely achieve 90 – 95 % accuracy whenever some Reading comprehension tests are thrown at you. 

The article will shed some light on that matter. It will cover those areas which you might be struggling or where you are wanting to improve. But first address ambiguity which occurs in a Reading Comprehension – There could be times (a few) when where the person who has set the questions is of a different opinion when it comes to answer of question than you. By this I mean questions related to opinions, inference, what comes after, conclusion and etc. These questions require a double check and should be answered carefully. However, there could be instances where answer won’t seem logical or defy common sense. 

 

But this should not serve as an excuse to not perform well in Reading comprehension. Reading comprehension like math requires practice. 

 

Here are some ways you can definitely improve :

 

  • Read as much as you can : 

Reading helps. When you read books, you get acquainted with new words and ideas. This opens up your mind to art, fiction, mythology, phenomenons,  scientific terms, popular terms, history, economics, etc. You should ask how will this help ? This should be your intent if you want to improve your Reading Comprehension ability. This is a golden advice. If you do this below points will automatically be taken care off. 

This has worked for me when I made a choice to read newspapers and books. It took me an approximate 3+ years to reach a 90+ accuracy in any given reading comprehension. So, it does take time but it’s a worthwhile investment. 

 

  • When attempting Reading comprehension choose the easiest first:

When you attempt Reading comprehension go for the easiest. This makes your brain running and helps get you into the temperament which is required. Then from there graduate to the less easier one and then to tougher ones. The problem here is how does one choose easier or easiest. The answer is go for familiar topics and passages which less jargonized. Sometimes small Passage RC’s (Reading Comprehensions) are tricky read a little to get an idea.

 

  • Read the questions First before reading passage to get a better idea:  

This advice was given to me by a friend who scored 98 percentile in CAT and a 100 percent in Verbal ability. You should read the questions before reading the passage. What this will do is that it will prepare your brain to look for those keywords and important lines where questions are framed. Fishing for an answer becomes easier.

 

  • Sub vocalization/vocalization of what you are reading is not good for comprehension :

When reading if your are vocal. It reduces your speed thereby your efficiency. You are already lagging to those who read through their iris. Moreover it affects the accuracy too. At best you get a vague idea. When you read it through your iris/eyes, You are processing the information in your mind. This information is qualitatively better and clear in your mind.

 

  • Don’t Attempt Reading comprehension in the last minutes of the exam:

If you are not good at reading comprehension, then don’t attempt during the last minutes of the exam. It will result in more wrongs than rights. During the last minutes we are at the final stages of the exam forcing ourselves to understand a passage is not a good idea. Chances our we can do more wrong than right. At those times avoid or choose a smaller passage or a familiar one. 

 

  • Read Norman Lewis Word Power :

The book is wonderful when it comes to understanding the etymology of words. You may wonder what would you do with understanding of words. One improves immensely generally in english and especially in RC’s. A person shall develop the ability to break words and draw the meaning of tough words without looking at a dictionary. This helps in RC’s which are attempted in exam time without Dictionary. I have read thrice. 

 

  • Watch Drama/art movies in English :

Some of the best usage of language and expression is found in art and drama movies. Watch IMDB top 250. It’s a good way to learn and get better at language comprehension.

 

  • Converse in English:

If you can, then please find someone who can converse with you in English. This will help improve your understanding of tenses, articles, and semantics. This will make your understanding of syntax of sentences better. When you would be reading you will certainly have a better understanding of the text.

 

If you follow the above given points then you are surely to perform well in Reading Comprehension. English is a universal language, it certainly helps in career growth and articulation. 

Read also 24 Phobias you have never heard of

Good luck !!

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Humm-Wadsworth Temperament Scale

humm and Wadsworth BrainpunditsReading Time: 3 minutes

Hum Wadsworth scale is a Temperament scale developed way back in 1935. The scale was constructed by DG Humm and GW Wadsworth. Not to forget that they had built their work on research of Rosanaoff (1927).

The Temperament scale was constructed to assess job performance of individuals. The idea was that temperament was the single most important determinant in industrial utility of labor. Above all temperament served as a indicator which determined one’s future job performance and job fit.

Through Humm Scale one could also make population comparisons. Certainly Temperament and its sub-components were considered sufficient enough to provide assessment of enough information on labor performance. Subsequently, Humm scale contained 300+ items which made the test very comprehensive and elaborate.

Temperament is a usual emotional response to a stimuli (from Merriam Webster). Naturally, emotions are what drives temperament. Subsequently a person’s temperament is a primary factor which helps in determining future work performance.  Therefore by measuring the temperament one could decipher which job roles one is suited for.

 

The scale assessed and categorized stereotypical behavior into 7 types. So these are :

 

  • Normal

  • Hustler

  • Mover

  • Double Checker

  • Artist

  • Politician

  • Engineer

 

 

Although, the categories were originally called Normal, Hyteriod (Hustler), Cycloid manic, Cycloid depressive, Schizoid autistic, Schizoid paranoid, Epileptoid. Certainly, such labels due to obvious reasons were replace/d.

Humm And Wadsworth temperament scale categories

Personality type Main Driver Dominant Traits
Normal Self Mastery, Law Abiding, Conservative, Highly adaptable to different social groups, desire to conform, better control over emotions
Hustler Self Interest Material success is important, Tact and diplomacy, Selfish, Good at negotiations
Mover Enthusiastic (High energy) Extroverted, Highly social, Cheerful, Hopefulness, Multi-tasking
Double Checker Similar to Mover, (High energy) Negativity Cautious, Self-critical, Pessimistic, Empathetic and prone to stress and anxiety
Artist Introspective Shy, Reflective, Sensitive, Self-consciousness, Imaginative, Creative, Socially reserved
Politician Ego Competitive, Argumentative, Status, Prestige and Power sensitive, Ambitious
Engineer Fastidious Detail-oriented, Objective, Systematic, Precise, Meticulous, Task Driven

 

Obviously, Humms – Wadsworth Scale cannot be compared to Big Five Personality test. But Humm was able to prove the validity of their test to +0.72 between test results and ability to predict job performance. In addition, Humm was the person who constructed the test worked on theoretical aspect of it and Wadsworth was the statistician.

Today, top companies employ psychometric tests for recruiting and quality purposes. These tests help in finding suitable from people of the same educational achievement by assessing the personality with cognition.   In conclusion career assessment tests or psychometric tests helps reduce human biases to provide solutions when it comes to finding a suitable match for job. Since, it is tougher to assess personality of individuals just by interviewing.

read also Open schooling Experience

(If you like please share and comment) Thank you.

 

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9 Sure Signs of Intelligent people

Brainpundits Signs of intelligenceReading Time: 4 minutes

9 Sure signs of intelligent people

Ever wondered why some people are more intelligent than others. It has been argued for long that intelligence is inheritable. That is to say it is in your genes. However, intelligence is much more complex. To state it modestly, Intelligence is a result of both genes and environment.  Sure signs of intelligence are accepted after years of research and studies which found correlation between traits and cognition. 

Early 1900s, Alfred Binet had formulated a standard test to test children in schools of France. This test was designed to assess those who were struggling with curriculum that was taught in school and develop measures to improve their faculties. Later, after some changes the test was re-designed in Stanford as IQ test which sought to determine their mental age (Intelligence level corresponding to their age).

Intelligence has a lot to do with how we behave, essentially our traits and characteristics. It shapes our world view and our general conduct or behavior. 

Intelligence is an important component of our personality. Naturally, it is also an important component of personality. So, here are 9 sure signs that an intelligent individual definitely possess.

  • Intelligent people are Open Minded.

Open minded

Being broad minded implies that you are open to other perspectives and opinions. Open mindedness means a person is open to opinions and values which challenges their own beliefs and values. Such people score high on aptitude tests. 

  • They are adaptable.

Adaptability

Contrary to popular belief, intelligent people can thrive in any given situation. This seems true when one recalls Social Darwinism. People with high intelligence will find ways to retain in situations which may pose a challenge.

  • Individualism.

Individualism

Intelligent people prefer their own company rather than need to socialize. Recent research has suggested that people with high intelligence tend to derive less satisfaction from socializing. This could mean they have few people they confide in.

  • Temperance seems to be virtue of intelligent.

Intelligent people have good command over themselves. They exercise in self control over their impulses. Research shows link between the two. The famous Marshmallow test is one that proves it. 

  • Good with empathy.

Empathy

Intelligent people are good in understanding experiences of others. They have high emotional intelligence. The intelligent people are sensitive to other people’s needs and expression.

  • Voracious Readers.

Voracious reader

Intelligent people love to read. The have quenchless thirst to know whatever there is in this world. They will read whatever comes their way. They educate themselves on numerous topics. 

  • Intelligent people have a good sense of humor.

Sarcasm

Sarcasm could be a sign of intelligence. Highly intelligent people enjoy dark humor. Austrian study found that people with low aggression were more open and appreciating to dark humor. 

  • Tendency to modestly estimate themselves when it comes to performance.

Modest

Intelligent people are generally modest when it comes to assessing their abilities and expressing their confidence over a skill. Modesty is a universally accepted and appreciated trait. Being modest helps in getting through situation by avoiding conflicts. 

  •  High self awareness.

Self aware

Intelligence person knows just how much of intelligence is there in them. The people who are intelligent know their limits when comes to their intelligence. They know exactly to what extent they are good at and what are their shortcomings. This also means they very well self aware.

So, here were 9 sure signs of intelligent behavior or people.

Read also What is data science ?

Good luck!!!

 

 

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NeuroScience says you become mature at 25

Reading Time: 2 minutes

 

In many societies you become eligible to vote when you turn 18. This rests on sound logic that you are mature now to elect your representative. When is comes to drinking alcohol, WHO reports that in almost 65 percent of the countries drinking age is 18 and above. Some of the countries like Sri lanka, Pakistan and USA have 21 years and above as legal age to be consuming alcohol. Legal age for girls to get married is 18 years in India.

 

Why I am telling you all this, is because such distinctions are rested up on the fact that roughly 18 years is considered as the age when you get matured enough to vote, drink or marry.

 

So, 18 years seems fair, right?

 

Wrong! at least Neuroscientists don’t agree with it. According to Dr Sandra Aamadt, we are likely to get mature around 25 years of age. To put more clarity to it first let’s talk about maturity first.

 

What is maturity?

Maturity is the ability to make a good sound judgement and have average if not better decision making ability. To make it more simpler you know what you are doing? Why you are doing it?

 

Research By Dr Aamodt,

 

Brain scans shows that prefrontal cortex of the brain develops well beyond the age of 18. The prefrontal cortex of brain is responsible for decision making and judgement. The research also suggests that roughly around 25 years, one becomes mature enough to make sound decisions.

 

The prefrontal cortex regulates our emotions, social interactions, risk assessment and planning.

If the age maturity is 25 then it has some serious implications. Like for example Punishment award system to criminals, Age of marriage, Consent laws, Education etc.

 

The scholar suggests a flexible system which accounts for different age for different functions. There can be exceptions to this rule since there could be people who mature at 18-19 or may be 21 years of age.

 

However, the study points generally maturity strikes at 25 or may be little over that. Since your prefrontal cortex keeps developing beyond 18.

 

So, if you have done something you regret or may be feel guilt about before you turned 25. You could forgive yourself or ask for forgiveness knowing maybe you weren’t that  mature enough to take good decision.

 

Goodluck!!!

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Use Ebbinghaus forgetting curve to memorize better

Reading Time: 2 minutes

 

Believe it or not forgetting is natural part of learning anything.

 

Hermann Ebbinghaus, German Psychologist, is credited with research on forgetting when learning. Ebbinghaus had discovered that much of what we read/learn is forgotten during the first hour of learning itself.

 

Memory works in a way, that it remembers meaningful information more easily and it stays longer than meaningless information. Meaningless information is simply any information which is not in use for brain or has run out it utility. Example, it could be that information which you read for an exam and post examination have problem recalling it. Mind has an intriguing way or remembering and rejecting information. 

 

Ebbinghaus had conducted experiment for both meaningful and meaningless retention. However, Meaningless information is important for us to study because by knowing why we forget our course material we would be able to understand and find solutions for it.

 

Below is retention (y-axis) vs time lapsed (x-axis) graph

 fig. 1

In figure 1, Notice the retention drops substantially in the first hour itself. Much of what we learnt (around 80 percent) is forgotten after 2 days only. This is found to be natural and universal, meaning all exhibit this phenomenon with little variations.

However, Good news is that you can change it by disrupting the pattern exhibited in Curve.

 

READ also SQ3R method of studying

Key essence is to minimise forgetting is periodic revisions of course/lectures/study material

Figure 2 Image from www.salesactivator.com/resources/blog/impactful-curve-forgetting/

 

The point is to revise periodically whatever you have  studied or read. The periodic revisions will help you retain better with least amount of mental effort.

Best way to do it is

  1. Revise after learning it once, or after attending a lecture.
  2. Again, Revise a day after your have learnt it.
  3. Again, Revise a week later.
  4. And Again, Revise a 28 days/month after learning.

In figure 2, notice that at approximately 75 percent on the y-scale (retentivity) there is an acute fall in remembering/retention. So after every learning session you should revise/review the course/notes/study material.

 

Hermann Ebbinghaus, has provided a gainful insight on how are memory works and how forgetting happens. The stressing viewpoint here is that this forgetting can be subject to change and you can maximize your learning.

Goodluck!!!

 

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Use the 80/20 rule to get good marks

Reading Time: 3 minutes

Vilfredo Fritz Pareto, an Italian polymath. He was an engineer, sociologist, political scientist and economist. He is famous for his book ‘Manual of political economy’ and for pareto’s principle.

 

It is this Pareto’s Principle that you can apply to make your study effective. Pareto’s principle is also called “Law of the vital few”.

 

To put it simply “ roughly 80% of effects/results come from 20 percent of causes”. This wonderful discovery of pareto happened when he observed that in his garden 20 percent of pea pods produced 80 percent of the peas.

 

During his stay in Lausanne he had discovered that 20 percent of the people in Italy owned 80 percent of the land. Pareto in 1909 had published it in book stating that this principle generally can be applied to wealth and other things and that this rule could be observed in any generation of any society.

 

Taking further, this 80/20 rule can be generally be applied to,

 

  • Investment
  • Studying
  • Farming
  • Marketing
  • Business
  • Trading
  • Economics
  • Research

 

And many more you can think of. Vilfredo pareto was able to discover that this using mathematics as a tool in political science and sociology.

 

Using 80/20 when studying,

 

What is 80/20 rule?

When applying to studying it is your 80 percent of result will come for 20 percent of your studying particular topics.

 

What does above imply?

This means that in your course there are some topics which are more important than others. This also means that areas you should focus on should not be even but weighted and not a constant, when it comes to focusing your attention and directing your efforts.

 

How do you go about it?

 

The first thing that you should do is to study the previous years papers to find what all questions are coming in the exam.

 

Usually, you will find some pattern. You will get to know from which topics the questions are usually coming. This essentially means that there are some topics which are more important than others. Some topics or sections from where the questions are regularly coming and other topics usually are not so popular with paper setters.

 

What does 80/20 have to do with studying previous year question papers?

Precisely everything, through this 80/20 rule you know that there are some topics which are of more importance than the others. This means your studying effort should not be evenly distributed but weighted accordingly. According to 80/20 rule your 80 percent of paper will come from 20 percent of the topics. (assuming these are exact or fixed estimates but a good estimate)

 

Sounds wonderful, doesn’t it, yes it is !

 

To make it simple, an example,

Supposedly there are 5 topics in a test that you have to prepare :

You should as stated above complete your assessment of previous years papers and mock tests, notice which of the topics are more prominently coming in your tests. Mark those topics, these are topics you should focus more on. For example topic 1 and topic 4 are more important as most questions are coming from these. You should focus more on them as compared to other topics.

 

This means that your effort is not evenly divided but distributed unevenly in your topics that you have to prepare.

 

So, apply 80/20 here, your test shall comprise of majority of questions coming from topic 1 and topic 4, rest 20 percent would be coming from others. Hence, your efforts should be best directed to topic 1 and topic 4 and other topics should be revised but your priority is topic 1 and topic 4.

 

Here it is, another smart way to study or prepare for an exam. And by the way this rule can be applied elsewhere also, just have to be creative.

 

Goodluck !

 

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How to stop procrastination and get things done

Reading Time: 4 minutes

 

Procrastination is a habit or tendency which delays or postpones the work that we have scheduled for ourselves. It is a tendency displayed by the person who delays a task indefinitely without any substantive reason.

 

Procrastination is common to everyone, this means that nearly everyone experiences it. Procrastination from Academics point of view has concerns regarding efficiency and productivity. Some intelligent and smart students suffer from procrastination which get reflected in their scores.

 

Your procrastination would look something like this if you plot it on graph:

 

As you can see that productivity is affected when you are starting a task or ending a task. There can be other variables but to simplify this, above two graph explains procrastination grossly.

 

There are primarily two areas where you seem to display dip in productivity. Starting or ending are points of concern over here. You can do the following to help yourself reduce or even eliminate procrastination.

 

Some strategies to cope up with procrastination,

 

 

  • Dive in head first if you see yourself procrastinating,

If you see or observe that you are procrastinating probably taking time to even start a task because of any reason than best would be to Just get started even if you are not mentally prepared. This will help you break the habit of delaying a task unintentionally.

 

 

 

 

  • Become Mindful,

You must be aware of yourself think about why you are doing what you are doing. Sometimes it could be lethargy, other times it could be uncertainty or sometimes you are affected by your mood. Once you get to know what is causing your procrastination it will easy to remedy it.

 

 

 

 

  • Follow a routine, Stick to it

Following a routine which will help you think less and do more. Routines are best way to eliminate procrastination. The habit itself will help you reduce procrastination.

 

 

  • Don’t do too much of planning,

Too much of planning is counter productive. Best would be to survey a task and break your tasks into micro tasks which will help you focus on constituent tasks. Too much of planning will eat away your time and you would be thinking more about how to do the task rather than doing the task.

 

 

  • Eliminating distractions,

Distractions are what drive your procrastination. Work or doing a task is universally boring unless you are one of those who love working. Best way is to know what are the distractions that fuel your Procrastination. Example, you often look at social media through your phone when doing a task, or watch videos on youtube when doing a task or in between a task.

 

 

  • Practice delayed gratification,

Delaying your gratification helps develop an habit to focus on tasks and not get distracted. As suggested delayed gratification can help you become an achiever. This can help you become more disciplined and habitual to perform the task. You can read more on stanford marshmallow experiment.

 

 

 

  • Don’t think too much about the outcome or result,

Often when we are starting a task we nervous or anxious about the outcome. This causes unnecessary delay in starting a task. Best is to be rational and avoid over thinking on outcomes or results. Outcome is not something in your control but effort is. If you believe in yourself, know yourself and your ability. Then by being rational and not thinking much about outcome you should get on with it.

 

 

 

  • Don’t be harsh on yourself, to increase productivity take short breaks.

Be kind to yourself, sticking for long hours reduces your productivity. You might have observed that after a prolonged hour of study session you find yourself watching a YouTube video or Facebook and you realize that much time is lost. Best is to take break when you feel a little exhausted doing a task. And don’t take a break there where you are doing a task but elsewhere so that you remind yourself to return to completing the task or study session.

 

 

We all have experienced it or experience it on frequent basis. The point is to make an effort to change is what will make the real difference.

 

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The SQ3R method of studying effectively

Reading Time: 3 minutes

 

Studying can be a task. If only it could be done rather efficiently and effectively. Often we study book from cover to cover. This article brings in an effective studying approach which can reduce your mental strain and effort. It was propounded by Francis P. Robinson. The SQ3R method.

Francis Pleasant Robinson, a popular educational psychologist, is the inventor of this effective method of studying. During his time in Ohio State University, he worked with an assessment team which worked on studying skills and habits of the new recruits in the army during World War 2. They used the data to devise certain high level strategies for learning and skill development.

 

Later Robinson’s book effective study outlined SQ3R method which suggests and effective way of studying. This method provides a systematic way of studying in less time.

 

What does SQ3R stand for?

 

Survey

Question

Read

Recite

Review

In essence this should be your approach when you are venturing to read a text.

 

Using SQ3R technique?

 

  • Survey

Read the index and preface to get an idea of how you are going to approach. Your survey of the book should be of finding target areas (example concepts,facts) which are important for your exam/assignment. A cursory reading of sub topics and sub dimensions given in the book will certainly help. The survey should be short, usually not more than 5 – 7 minutes.

 

read here study hacks

 

  • Question

Now after completion of survey, ask questions to yourself regarding the text you just surveyed. Use the subheadings and dimensions given to form queries. What happens is, this way of questioning will increase your general curiosity and interests in text you are going to delve into. The questions you form, write them down in a workbook systematically.

 

 

  • Read

Post jotting down questions to the text you just surveyed, go for hunting the answers in the text. Only this time be alert and more focused than you were when surveying. Read areas of concern/importance very carefully and thoughtfully. Read twice/thrice if required.

 

 

  • Recite

Now comes the challenging part, try to answer the questions which you had written earlier in your own language and briefly (suggested). At this point note down what important points are required (should make notes in your own words). These notes will provide a basis for reviewing material later.

 

Make sure that you don’t copy from the book and write very briefly about the topic. This uses kinaesthetic form learning which equally important as other forms of learning.

 

  • Review

After completing everything, the final step is to read the notes you have made by reviewing them at spaced intervals (an hour, next day, after a week). The way you shall go about reviewing is to recite in your mind all the major sub heads, dimensions with what they are implying. Through this you will work on recalling material when revising. In essence you are reinforcing what all you have read.

 

This method of reading was later introduced to graduates also. Mr Robinson had published this method in his book effective study (1946). The book outlines ways to improve on study methods and acquiring effective study skills.

 

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5 Stress Related Hormones and Ways to Cope with it

5 Stress Related HormonesReading Time: 3 minutes

I am sure all of us have gone through stressful times or experienced a mild form of stress. Stress has both mental and physical effects. It could affect your memory or give you a headache.

Whatever the case may be, some amount of stress can be beneficial as it works as a response/indicator to demand or challenge.

Did you know there are hormones which affect your stress levels? Hormones are secreted by various glands in your body. They regulate one’s bodily functions.

 

5 Stress-Related Hormones

 

 

  • Cortisol

Source – Here

Perhaps the most Important hormone when comes to stress. It is produced as a response to stress. In simple terms, it helps us manage the physiological response to stress. It regulates blood pressure and sugar levels.

If there is long term stress then in its response more cortisol will be secreted and this will have a negative impact on people, like high blood pressure or more fat storage in the body. In other words, more cortisol will make it worse if stress is prolonged.

Laughing, Exercising, Meditation, Therapy, Sleeping well, Healthy food habits can help regulate cortisol levels.

 

 

  • Adrenaline

Adrenaline rushImage Source – Here

It is secreted when we are presented with a stressful situation. In moments when we are presented with crisis situations or emergencies, this hormone is secreted which increases mental alertness and increased blood flow to muscles making one superman momentarily.

In short, momentarily you will experience a burst of energy. This hormone helps us coping with sudden stressful situations. It is popularly called flight or fight hormone.

To increase adrenaline in the body take stairs instead of the elevator, exercise regularly, protein-rich diet, adventure sports can help.

To decrease adrenaline focus on breathing, good habits, meditation.

 

 

  • Glucagon

Source – Here

Glucagon hormone is indirectly related to stress. It helps the body maintain optimum blood sugar levels. Since stress can result in low blood sugar levels then this hormone helps secrete glucose into the bloodstream.

Stress can induce hypoglycemia which results in low blood sugar levels.

To keep blood sugar at an optimum level (If you are not a diabetic) eat vegetables, poultry, fish, lean meat, fibers, and nuts can help.

 

  • Vasopressin  

Though currently researched Vasopressin is found to have a link with stress and pain. It helps the body to retain water, increases blood pressure etc. It allows a person to sleep straight through the night eliminating interruptions.

It has a role in circadian rhythm, regulating body temperature. The body gets signal if we are dehydrated and it releases vasopressin so that body retains water and prevent water loss.

 

 

  • Norepinephrine

focusing

A stress hormone which is released into the bloodstream when stress is perceived. It helps in arousal, alertness, focusing and memory.

It helps in coming up with depression, many patients who suffer from depression are given Norepinephrine. It helps to counter the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and other disorders like Bipolar.

Foods like banana, cheese, meat, chocolates, and oats help in increasing this hormone. However, having too much of this hormone will result in panic, anxiety, and insomnia. Lower levels can produce fatigue and depression. So, these were the most prominent hormones which are related to stress!