Believe it or not forgetting is natural part of learning anything.
Hermann Ebbinghaus, German Psychologist, is credited with research on forgetting when learning. Ebbinghaus had discovered that much of what we read/learn is forgotten during the first hour of learning itself.
Memory works in a way, that it remembers meaningful information more easily and it stays longer than meaningless information. Meaningless information is simply any information which is not in use for brain or has run out it utility. Example, it could be that information which you read for an exam and post examination have problem recalling it. Mind has an intriguing way or remembering and rejecting information.
Ebbinghaus had conducted experiment for both meaningful and meaningless retention. However, Meaningless information is important for us to study because by knowing why we forget our course material we would be able to understand and find solutions for it.
Below is retention (y-axis) vs time lapsed (x-axis) graph
In figure 1, Notice the retention drops substantially in the first hour itself. Much of what we learnt (around 80 percent) is forgotten after 2 days only. This is found to be natural and universal, meaning all exhibit this phenomenon with little variations.
However, Good news is that you can change it by disrupting the pattern exhibited in Curve.
READ also SQ3R method of studying
Key essence is to minimise forgetting is periodic revisions of course/lectures/study material
Figure 2 Image from www.salesactivator.com/resources/blog/impactful-curve-forgetting/
The point is to revise periodically whatever you have studied or read. The periodic revisions will help you retain better with least amount of mental effort.
Best way to do it is
- Revise after learning it once, or after attending a lecture.
- Again, Revise a day after your have learnt it.
- Again, Revise a week later.
- And Again, Revise a 28 days/month after learning.
In figure 2, notice that at approximately 75 percent on the y-scale (retentivity) there is an acute fall in remembering/retention. So after every learning session you should revise/review the course/notes/study material.
Hermann Ebbinghaus, has provided a gainful insight on how are memory works and how forgetting happens. The stressing viewpoint here is that this forgetting can be subject to change and you can maximize your learning.
Studying can be a task. If only it could be done rather efficiently and effectively. Often we study book from cover to cover. This article brings in an effective studying approach which can reduce your mental strain and effort. It was propounded by Francis P. Robinson. The SQ3R method.
Francis Pleasant Robinson, a popular educational psychologist, is the inventor of this effective method of studying. During his time in Ohio State University, he worked with an assessment team which worked on studying skills and habits of the new recruits in the army during World War 2. They used the data to devise certain high level strategies for learning and skill development.
Later Robinson’s book effective study outlined SQ3R method which suggests and effective way of studying. This method provides a systematic way of studying in less time.
What does SQ3R stand for?
In essence this should be your approach when you are venturing to read a text.
Using SQ3R technique?
Read the index and preface to get an idea of how you are going to approach. Your survey of the book should be of finding target areas (example concepts,facts) which are important for your exam/assignment. A cursory reading of sub topics and sub dimensions given in the book will certainly help. The survey should be short, usually not more than 5 – 7 minutes.
read here study hacks
Now after completion of survey, ask questions to yourself regarding the text you just surveyed. Use the subheadings and dimensions given to form queries. What happens is, this way of questioning will increase your general curiosity and interests in text you are going to delve into. The questions you form, write them down in a workbook systematically.
Post jotting down questions to the text you just surveyed, go for hunting the answers in the text. Only this time be alert and more focused than you were when surveying. Read areas of concern/importance very carefully and thoughtfully. Read twice/thrice if required.
Now comes the challenging part, try to answer the questions which you had written earlier in your own language and briefly (suggested). At this point note down what important points are required (should make notes in your own words). These notes will provide a basis for reviewing material later.
Make sure that you don’t copy from the book and write very briefly about the topic. This uses kinaesthetic form learning which equally important as other forms of learning.
After completing everything, the final step is to read the notes you have made by reviewing them at spaced intervals (an hour, next day, after a week). The way you shall go about reviewing is to recite in your mind all the major sub heads, dimensions with what they are implying. Through this you will work on recalling material when revising. In essence you are reinforcing what all you have read.
This method of reading was later introduced to graduates also. Mr Robinson had published this method in his book effective study (1946). The book outlines ways to improve on study methods and acquiring effective study skills.
Do you find it hard to trust the information that you get online? Do you get weary of scores of fake news that gets spread with such ease? In this post, we will give out 8 essential tips on how to spot fake news and navigate information on the internet. Read on.
This is the age of instant information. We are bombarded by news, information of various kinds from different spheres – especially on the internet. But this has led to the rise of false information and fake news being propagated easily to rile up people’s sentiments and fooling them.
Hence, it is very important to know how to sift out the real from the fake. It is important because misinformation leads to false beliefs and false realities. While there’s always room for subjected ways of living but false information, which is actually leading to deaths in certain cases is extremely wrong and doesn’t bode well for democracy.
So, it is not only our duty to be a well-informed citizen but also imperative for us to expose false information. Here are 8 tips to navigate information on the Internet.
You might have heard this phrase “fact-checking”, it is a very recent phenomenon. There are actual people who are working as full-time fact checkers. These fact-checkers debunk every false misinformation that gets viral on the internet.
In India, you can check out sites like “Alt-News”, Boomlive, “Smhoaxslayer”, which conduct through fact-checking and help expose misinformation. So, whenever you get that forward on your WhatsApp about something that seems odd, better to fact-check it first.
One key method you should adopt while navigating the internet is the concept of Lateral Reading. Lateral reading simply means that whenever you want to search for any kind of news on the internet, do not focus on one source of information. Rather, open up another site on a new tab and search for more credible sources of information on the same thing.
For example, if you want to know about climate change in detail, don’t stick to just one website for information rather open up more websites. This helps you in sifting out what is being said across the board on an issue, in this case, Climate Change.
Going to Trustworthy Sources
You also need to have a bunch of trustworthy sources for news and information that are credible. Although almost everyone has some kind of bias involved despite the prevalence of bias there are certain news websites and news agencies that you know you can trust.
For example, my trustable sites are – The Hindu, Indian Express, BBC, New York Times, Reuters.
Now, we all have heard it from almost everyone – that we should not use Wikipedia for our source of information. Their reasons come from the fact that Wikipedia can be edited by almost anyone.
But that’s not really the case. Wikipedia is actually a pretty good source of information of one thing as a lot of contributors contribute to it. You should use Wikipedia as a part of the lateral reading we suggested. There are various pages in Wikipedia, that are actually locked that can’t be edited by anyone and is moderated by moderators.
The trick of using Wikipedia is to check the sources, which every page has at the end of it. The credibility of the sources gives credibility to that particular wiki page.
Now, suppose if you were to find some information about Climate Change which says that is not happening and it gives certain evidence. The best way to check is to verify that evidence – by doing a lateral reading.
You open up other credible websites to see if that information or evidence is credible or not. So, by doing this you will eventually find out that the evidence given is fake.
So, you encounter a photo on your WhatsApp or Facebook which seems highly implausible. How do you check the veracity of it? How do see if it is a fake or not?
Well, the simplest way is to do a reverse google search of that image. You take that photo and go to Google images and upload it and search it. It will reverse search to see where that image has been previously used or not. This way you can check the veracity of that photo.
Evaluating Data and Infographics
You often hear or read on the news about some research conducted on chocolate being healthy for your body. Then you try to find things on the internet to check and you find various kinds of data and infographics. How to know what is reliable?
Well, this is the trickiest part to do but there are ways to check it. First, you will need to go the study cited in that news or in that infographic. Second, after finding that study – go through their methodology and sample size. You can also check it by in which journal is it published and the level citations.
Now, these all are rather tricky to for a normal individual but if you can follow this technique then you can see the way people use statistics to fool people. As it is said there are “Lies, then there are damned lies, and then there are damned statistics”.
Finally, you need to practice Click restraint. This means don’t jump to clicking every salacious websites out there. The google search that you do has a lot of options on the page, and we have a habit of clicking the very first two links.
Which is a wrong way as just because they are the first links, doesn’t mean that they are the most reliable or even worth the click. They have sensational headings or sub-headings made in a way to make you click them. These are called Click-baits.
The best way is to go through the entire first page of google search and then decide on what to click and what not to. You can also go to the second page, although I know you may have never done that.
So, these are 8 essential tips to use while navigating information in the age of the internet. It is very important as we all need to aware of actual information and need to stop falling to fake news and false information online. This is a battle we all must face and fight. Till then cheers, and keep exploring yourself with Brainpundits!
Reading is a skill. Hence, some people get a better understanding by gliding through text once whereas others might have to read twice, thrice and still cannot comprehend fully.
Reading faster helps in reducing the time and mental effort. Ever wished if you could get more out of text and could read books faster. This can help you read more books enhance your knowledge and reflect your capability.
How to Read 2x Faster
Reading has two primary components
The language is an important component, without saying the more the command over language the more you will fly through text.
Comprehensibility is your ability to understand what you are reading with ease. The more the ease the better your ability.
Ways you can use to swim through text
- If you are a beginner or are struggling with reading in general, I suggest building base use a pen/pencil to read through the text. Your pen/pencil follows your eyes through the text.
- Understand first what you desire to derive from book/topic/text/article you are reading. More often than not, we read through first to the last word. Depending upon your demand you set the tone of your reading.
- Use skimming, skimming is done to get a general view of the text/book/article. Here you glance through the topic to get an overall view. Example, if I am in a hurry to read this article then instead of reading from top to bottom First would read the topic and some lines of introduction then would find anything highlighted or slant written lines or boldly written line, read through them and points mentioned and leaving other things.
- Use Scanning, when you need to understand a subtopic or concept/idea from a book. When you know what you want from the text it is better to directly to the main crux without dallying with the book. Example, I know what is want through this article is to learn techniques, hence, I scan through the text to find “Ways you can use to swim through text”, this is where I shall focus more than other areas of articles.
- If you know about the topic then you can skip parts which you are aware off to speed read it. I do that most of the time. Many of the details are that I find I know or stats I skip to the areas which require more concentration.
- Become a voracious reader, if not then at least read whenever you find an opportunity. This will make your reading ability stronger. Some years back it took me 2 hours to read a Newspaper, Now I can read it easily under 40 minutes with more accuracy.
Reading requires an investment of time and effort. You have to work through it. There is no doubt that the more you read, the faster you will get at reading provided you are comprehending what you are reading simultaneously.
Phobias are irrational fears. They may invoke a physiological response or cause intense distress. Usually, Phobias can be triggered by a person coming near to the object or putting in a situation where it is triggered where even the anticipation can trigger panic.
Phobia is different from fear in the sense that they are much more serious as they may trigger a panic attack and anxiety. Also other than fear, a phobic person can be averse to something causing distress.
24 Most Weird Phobias You Never Heard Of
People who are afraid of taking a bad selfie or have issues with identity or how they look. People usually don’t find their selfie good enough or feel they are not attractive enough desist from taking.
Using emojis have become part of texting be it Facebook chat or WhatsApp. Emojis are used over many platforms. Here a person fears emojis which can cause misunderstandings or miscommunication.
Fear of time is chronophobia. It is seen that prisoners and older people who keep rigorous track of time are usually susceptible of chronophobia. As time lost cannot be brought back makes them panicky.
Ever been without your phone. Did you feel uneasy? There is phobia where a person will panic if one is not connected to the network or separated from their phone.
Is the fear of cheese. They are averse to cheese. A person having Turophobia might just run away seeing cheese. Cheese can be terrifying for some.
This is fear of belly button or navel. It can be triggered by viewing or looking another person’s belly button or one’s own even for that matter.
Believe it or not, there are people who fear the pope. So, if you are a Papathophobic person then visiting the Vatican would not be such a good idea. Crudely translates to fear of holy things or the pope in some cases.
Unwrapping a gift can be delightful, receiving or giving gifts are joyful. Apparently not for some people, the thought of it scares some people. Doraphobia pertains to making or receiving gifts.
Ever saw Jesus or dinosaur shape formed in clouds. Apparently, people who have Nephophobia are scared of Clouds. So, a foggy day would be a terrifying experience for such people or flying above the clouds.
Fear of swallowing, phagophobia. Could be related to a bad experience when eating or swallowing. This based on fear of getting choked when swallowing liquids, food, etc.
Fear of not being able to understand what you are reading. This makes studying terrifying.
Is characterized as a fear of knowledge. Gnosophobic person might react with aversion or hatred to any kind of new knowledge.
to see/know more weird phobias *see part 2 of weird phobias.
It is the fear of adolescents/teenagers. This type of aversion is likely seen in older people towards younger people. So next time if you see an old person moving away from your good company, they are probably scared of you.
Fear of number 13. This type of fear persists in people when seeing/noticing number 13. They usually avoid floor number 13 or car plate number with 13.
A dextrophobic person fears objects to the right side of. The dextrophobic individual will never walk on the right side or take the right turn or be to his right. This is a type of OCD.
This type phobia pertains to fearing the number ‘666’. In the biblical sense, this number is associated with evil. They will avoid buying a car plate number with ‘666’ or house number with ‘666’.
It is the fear of buttons. Such people fear wearing or even avoid seeing buttons. So, it’s obvious that you won’t see them at any formal event where everyone is either wearing a suit or shirt.
It is the fear of vegetables. People in this category will definitely not be eating any dish which has vegetables in it.
A person having trypophobia fears seeing pores or holes or bumps collectively in a patterned or unpatterned way. They are very averse to even the sight of it. It generally causes strong dislike/aversion.
Ompbrophobia is the fear of rainfall. Such people watch the weather regularly to avoid rainfall. They prefer to sit inside wait for rainfall to get over.
It is the fear of beards. Babies are usually afraid of bearded men, they will cry at the sight of seeing a bearded man. People in this category will avoid being in close proximity to beards in general.
As the name gives the clue. This type of fear pertains to fearing long words. People who have this phobia will avoid using/speaking longer words.
This type of Phobia is associated with fear of developing a phobia or more aptly put the fear of fearing something. Some Phobophobic person can suffer from panic attacks and anxiety also.
Different Phobia may require different treatment. However, almost all require Psychotherapy and in some cases even medications after diagnosis.
So, here are the 24 Most Weird Phobias You Never Heard Of. Hope you liked !
We all agree that if we could have scored better in test then it would have been better. We sit all day and night studying very hard for examination but upon receiving an average or below average score we become disappointed. Here are some effective study hacks that can help you score better in your exams
Easy and Effective Study Hacks
Study the test and its structure
Often what we do is buy books and start studying for an exam. This is not an effective way of studying. The best way is to understand the structure of the test before starting the questions. For example, one can start studying questions asked in test and identify topics in assigned books.
Mnemonics are wonderful tools to remember intricate/useful details. They help in easy retrieval of details during exam time. For example, one can use mnemonics such as BODMAS which stands for Bracket, Of, Division, Multiplication, Addition, and Subtraction.
Stick to a routine
It is essential to stick to a routine as it allows proper rest and recovery to absorb details in the long-term memory block of our mind. Hence studying one or two days before the exam does not produce a very good score.
Have daily targets, not time-based targets
Many students inquire how many hours to study to get a good score. This approach is an incorrect approach instead one should assign daily targets to self-earlier.
Read Recall Recite and Write
After Reading any text you can decide to write, recall and recite in front of your peer/parents. This helps you use information in different ways which can help in remembering.
Practice mock tests
This enables you to simulate the test environment. This helps us notice unforeseen and not examined issues which may crop up during exam time. For example: for a math test one may get to know how much time utilized calculating.
It helps the following routine and adhering to self-imposed rules when it comes to studying. This avoids procrastination and gets our work done on time.
Playing any sport
Research shows that inculcating a fitness activity is good for your mind/cognition. Also engaging in activities that promote physical exertion. Healthy mind and body. So, when you are taking a break from studying then probably best to play any sport.
Change the environment
Research shows improvement in learning if you change your environment. However, the environment should be less distracting. For example, studying sometimes under the tree in a park can be useful if quiet.
Use the Pomodoro Technique
Pomodoro Technique is a good study hack makes you more productive, based on research it was found that productivity gets depleted after 25 mins of studying. Hence you should take a break of about 5 – 10 mins and then get back to studying as it replenishes you back to 100 percent. You can use it to study for anywhere between 25 – 50 mins and then take a break.
Use the Feynman technique
One of the best methods to study is Feynman technique which is teaching someone what you have learned or understood. The basic idea behind it is that if you aren’t able to explain a concept to someone then you never understood it better. You can find people to help you explain the concept or practice explaining yourself in front of the mirror.
Do not study a few days before the exam
Studying some days before the exam is not going to help. Studying a day before the exam might make you pass but certainly cannot get good marks. Memory takes repetitions and effort to get stored for long term. Best is to study by making plan well beforehand and execute targets according to plan.
If you follow these awesome and effective study hacks, you can get better marks in your test. The most important point here is to start the earliest.