Vilfredo Fritz Pareto, an Italian polymath. He was an engineer, sociologist, political scientist and economist. He is famous for his book ‘Manual of political economy’ and for pareto’s principle.
It is this Pareto’s Principle that you can apply to make your study effective. Pareto’s principle is also called “Law of the vital few”.
To put it simply “ roughly 80% of effects/results come from 20 percent of causes”. This wonderful discovery of pareto happened when he observed that in his garden 20 percent of pea pods produced 80 percent of the peas.
During his stay in Lausanne he had discovered that 20 percent of the people in Italy owned 80 percent of the land. Pareto in 1909 had published it in book stating that this principle generally can be applied to wealth and other things and that this rule could be observed in any generation of any society.
Taking further, this 80/20 rule can be generally be applied to,
And many more you can think of. Vilfredo pareto was able to discover that this using mathematics as a tool in political science and sociology.
Using 80/20 when studying,
What is 80/20 rule?
When applying to studying it is your 80 percent of result will come for 20 percent of your studying particular topics.
What does above imply?
This means that in your course there are some topics which are more important than others. This also means that areas you should focus on should not be even but weighted and not a constant, when it comes to focusing your attention and directing your efforts.
How do you go about it?
The first thing that you should do is to study the previous years papers to find what all questions are coming in the exam.
Usually, you will find some pattern. You will get to know from which topics the questions are usually coming. This essentially means that there are some topics which are more important than others. Some topics or sections from where the questions are regularly coming and other topics usually are not so popular with paper setters.
What does 80/20 have to do with studying previous year question papers?
Precisely everything, through this 80/20 rule you know that there are some topics which are of more importance than the others. This means your studying effort should not be evenly distributed but weighted accordingly. According to 80/20 rule your 80 percent of paper will come from 20 percent of the topics. (assuming these are exact or fixed estimates but a good estimate)
Sounds wonderful, doesn’t it, yes it is !
To make it simple, an example,
Supposedly there are 5 topics in a test that you have to prepare :
You should as stated above complete your assessment of previous years papers and mock tests, notice which of the topics are more prominently coming in your tests. Mark those topics, these are topics you should focus more on. For example topic 1 and topic 4 are more important as most questions are coming from these. You should focus more on them as compared to other topics.
This means that your effort is not evenly divided but distributed unevenly in your topics that you have to prepare.
So, apply 80/20 here, your test shall comprise of majority of questions coming from topic 1 and topic 4, rest 20 percent would be coming from others. Hence, your efforts should be best directed to topic 1 and topic 4 and other topics should be revised but your priority is topic 1 and topic 4.
Here it is, another smart way to study or prepare for an exam. And by the way this rule can be applied elsewhere also, just have to be creative.
Phobias are irrational fears. They may invoke a physiological response or cause intense distress. Usually, Phobias can be triggered by a person coming near to the object or putting in a situation where it is triggered where even the anticipation can trigger panic.
Phobia is different from fear in the sense that they are much more serious as they may trigger a panic attack and anxiety. Also other than fear, a phobic person can be averse to something causing distress.
24 Most Weird Phobias You Never Heard Of
People who are afraid of taking a bad selfie or have issues with identity or how they look. People usually don’t find their selfie good enough or feel they are not attractive enough desist from taking.
Using emojis have become part of texting be it Facebook chat or WhatsApp. Emojis are used over many platforms. Here a person fears emojis which can cause misunderstandings or miscommunication.
Fear of time is chronophobia. It is seen that prisoners and older people who keep rigorous track of time are usually susceptible of chronophobia. As time lost cannot be brought back makes them panicky.
Ever been without your phone. Did you feel uneasy? There is phobia where a person will panic if one is not connected to the network or separated from their phone.
Is the fear of cheese. They are averse to cheese. A person having Turophobia might just run away seeing cheese. Cheese can be terrifying for some.
This is fear of belly button or navel. It can be triggered by viewing or looking another person’s belly button or one’s own even for that matter.
Believe it or not, there are people who fear the pope. So, if you are a Papathophobic person then visiting the Vatican would not be such a good idea. Crudely translates to fear of holy things or the pope in some cases.
Unwrapping a gift can be delightful, receiving or giving gifts are joyful. Apparently not for some people, the thought of it scares some people. Doraphobia pertains to making or receiving gifts.
Ever saw Jesus or dinosaur shape formed in clouds. Apparently, people who have Nephophobia are scared of Clouds. So, a foggy day would be a terrifying experience for such people or flying above the clouds.
Fear of swallowing, phagophobia. Could be related to a bad experience when eating or swallowing. This based on fear of getting choked when swallowing liquids, food, etc.
Fear of not being able to understand what you are reading. This makes studying terrifying.
Is characterized as a fear of knowledge. Gnosophobic person might react with aversion or hatred to any kind of new knowledge.
to see/know more weird phobias *see part 2 of weird phobias.
It is the fear of adolescents/teenagers. This type of aversion is likely seen in older people towards younger people. So next time if you see an old person moving away from your good company, they are probably scared of you.
Fear of number 13. This type of fear persists in people when seeing/noticing number 13. They usually avoid floor number 13 or car plate number with 13.
A dextrophobic person fears objects to the right side of. The dextrophobic individual will never walk on the right side or take the right turn or be to his right. This is a type of OCD.
This type phobia pertains to fearing the number ‘666’. In the biblical sense, this number is associated with evil. They will avoid buying a car plate number with ‘666’ or house number with ‘666’.
It is the fear of buttons. Such people fear wearing or even avoid seeing buttons. So, it’s obvious that you won’t see them at any formal event where everyone is either wearing a suit or shirt.
It is the fear of vegetables. People in this category will definitely not be eating any dish which has vegetables in it.
A person having trypophobia fears seeing pores or holes or bumps collectively in a patterned or unpatterned way. They are very averse to even the sight of it. It generally causes strong dislike/aversion.
Ompbrophobia is the fear of rainfall. Such people watch the weather regularly to avoid rainfall. They prefer to sit inside wait for rainfall to get over.
It is the fear of beards. Babies are usually afraid of bearded men, they will cry at the sight of seeing a bearded man. People in this category will avoid being in close proximity to beards in general.
As the name gives the clue. This type of fear pertains to fearing long words. People who have this phobia will avoid using/speaking longer words.
This type of Phobia is associated with fear of developing a phobia or more aptly put the fear of fearing something. Some Phobophobic person can suffer from panic attacks and anxiety also.
Different Phobia may require different treatment. However, almost all require Psychotherapy and in some cases even medications after diagnosis.
So, here are the 24 Most Weird Phobias You Never Heard Of. Hope you liked !
Mind mapping is a wonderful technique to learn, process, remember and visualize any information.
You can learn any information faster than the traditional method of rote learning. It takes less effort and helps you retain efficiently.
Tony Buzan introduced this concept as an alternative to getting a conventional way of scanning information (i.e. from left to right we read the text).
However, this technique was used by Greeks, Leonardo Da Vinci and others in similar forms. Buzan is credited with popularizing the technique.
How mind maps work?
Our mind works as a network of neurons connected to each other transmitting information. You can think of the mind as the Internet.
Our ability to reflect and understand greatly depends on our imagination and ability to create close associations between things we learn.
Mindmaps works on both these aspects reworking brain to better visualize and create close associations with things you learn.
How to make mind maps?
Identify the central topic or most important issue. It becomes your central topic, main idea. For students who are preparing for exams, the chapter which your reading is usually the central topic.
Here as an example, I have used Disasters as a central topic:
In this step, you are addressing why, how and perhaps definitions of the central topic and most relevant information related to it.
In the image below, I have defined what disaster is.
In the third step, you are addressing the modalities/types/variables of the central topic.
Here in the image, there are primarily two types of disasters Natural and Man-made.
In the 4th step, you include suggestions, possibilities or structure of a central topic. You can use other important details to connect to the central topic.
In this step, I have explained mitigation and management.
In the final steps see if you require any examples or events that are associated with your central topic. Also see if any of the details are correlated, if yes, then connect them together.
Here, I have mentioned examples of both natural and man-made disasters. Also, I have connected drought to both Man-made and natural disasters category.
This is a generic framework, a step by step process, to guide you on How to make Mind maps if you are confused where to start and what to write where.
You can customize it, as per your need. It’s not fixed or successive, you can start from any step.
Mind maps will help efficiently manage your information and present to you in a way which results in the least effort and interactive way to remember information.
A good night’s sleep is essential for a healthy body and mind but what about those afternoon naps? This article will talk about the benefits of afternoon siestas!
We all love to sleep. Its one of the most peaceful moments of the day. But most of us don’t know the important benefits related to sleep. Apart from rebooting our system, in a way, it also helps in memory formation. In this article, we are going to talk about the overall benefits of sleep but also the power of taking naps in between.
The Importance of Sleep
Sleep plays a very important role as it helps crystalize emotional information, that we gather throughout the day. It also helps us control how we feel. When we are asleep, our brain is encoding information based on the experiences from the day. Which makes the act of sleeping extremely essential for preserving memories.
Emotional memories, researchers argue, are unique because of the way the influence our amygdala, our brain’s emotional core. This core is what makes our memories of wedding days or funerals or anything emotional, remembered carefully. Such emotional days are better remembered than other days.
A good night’s sleep is extremely good at transforming these experiences into emotional memories. That is why it is recommended that we get at least six-eight hours of sleep every day.
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Not All Sleep Are Equal
However, not all periods of sleep are equal. The sleep we get a night, the long 6-8-hour ones, are the ones in which we go through several phases of sleep. This is known as REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep. It is closely associated with our emotional memories. Researchers argue that more REM sleep makes people better at assessing other people’s emotional intentions and also in recalling emotional stories.
Another thing that happens when are in the REM phase is related to our Prefrontal Cortex. Prefrontal Cortex is the most developed part of our brain. Researchers also call this location of our brain where we have the impulse to keep calm and not react to things immediately.
When we are awake, this part of the brain keeps our emotions in check. But this connection is reduced when are in REM sleep. Our brain also paralyzes our body during REM phase, otherwise, we would be constantly moving, which could hurt us.
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Naps or Slow-Wave Sleep
But there are also other kinds of sleep which do not feature the REM phase. These are naps. Naps are also known as ‘Slow-Wave’ sleep and it’s usually the phase of sleep. It also helps consolidates memories. But are they effective in keeping our emotions in check as the REM sleep does?
Researchers in order to answer this did a study with children to see the effects of naps. The study found that the children who didn’t take naps were grumpier and mentally exhausted. And the children who took naps were, as the researcher called ‘cool as a cucumber’.
In adults as well, research has shown that afternoon naps help one destress and feel better during the day. Any stress or headaches or just normal issues of the day make the brain stressed, so afternoon naps help one feel better.
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The overall science of sleep is still complicated as research is still discovering new things. For example, a recent paper has argued that a longer duration of REM sleep leads to people getting depressed. The reason is not yet known but there are strong linkages.
This sort of findings just makes the overall phenomenon of sleep more complicated. But for now, what you should take away from this article is that sleep is essential for us. In the end, the best prescription for a heartache or a confused mind or a headache is to get a good sleep!
So, the next time your feeling low or feel stressed, try to take a nap. As science says it will help. Till then cheers and keep exploring yourself with Brainpundits.