From the first day you were born to the last day of your life, we have been constantly learning. But have you ever asked or thought in the direction. In this article, we unveil the process of how does learning happen?
a.) WHY learning is happening or what is the process behind it? I am pretty sure many of you never paid attention to these questions. Here in this series, I am going to explain you the process of learning, that what is the behind the learning like and I am sure after this series many of you are going to figure it out the reasons behind learning. Even simplest of your behavior is influenced by the fear of new things or learning new things.
How Does Learning Happen?
So first of let me introduced you the three very basic models of learning which are:-
- Stimulus-Response model (S-R)
- Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R)
- Response (R)
But before going to deep in the learning let me introduce to some basic terms which we will use in the present and later articles of this series.
Don’t put yourself in too much chaos after reading these 3 technical words they have the same meaning in layman language to
A stimulus is simply an object in your environment that elicits a response. For example. If your are herpetophobia person and saw a lizard around you, this will elicit your response of fear, so here you can say Lizard is the stimulus for your fearful response.
Here organism will depict you, for example, what kind of influencing factors occurs due to your cognitive and emotional activities during the learning.
This has the same meaning as in the English language, the response given by any person when the stimulus is introduced to him or her.
So in this first article of our series, we will talk about the first model of learning the STIMULUS-RESPONSE MODEL
This model as the name implies is concerned strictly with the stimulus and subsequent response of that stimulus. You can also see it as a vending machine like you put a coin inside which is your stimulus and a soda can will come out(Response). So it is based strictly on just a stimulus introduced and the response given by the person. The most classical example of this learning is CLASSICAL CONDITIONING of IVAN PAVLOV
Classical conditioning:- If you are not from the psychology background then there are chances that you are not much aware of this term. Classical conditioning can give you a lot of answers of your unanswered questions that why you developed a certain phobia or it can also help you in overcoming a certain fear. But first, let me explain you the concept of classical conditioning.
Lets start with the classical dog experiment, dogs have their natural response to start salivation when they see food even normal human beings have this reflex too, but during research Ivan Pavlov noticed that, after repeated testing of food and salivation, the dog in the observation began to salivate before the food was presented, such as when they heard the footsteps of the approaching experimenter. So this showed that the dog was showing his natural reflex even for the tone(footsteps).
So what they did here is they introduced a different stimulus other than food and even after that successfully able to elicit a natural response( salivation)
Later in this experiment, they introduced a dog with a bell sound some moments before the food has to be given and the dog starts salivating.
SO before conditioning where the dog was only salivating on the food, when they are presenting them now he starts salivating on a tone after completion of conditioning.
It took a number of attempts and ample amount of time to link the unconditioned response (salivation) and conditioned stimulus(tone). Later when the dog starts salivating on conditioned stimulus (tone), the unconditioned response gets converted into a conditioned response.
APPLICATION OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Pavlov thinks that salvation is just tip of the classical conditioning iceberg and later on he proved right. Conditioning principles help us understand human behavior and their problems in a number of ways.
- Acquiring and overcoming fear
- Albert experiment
- Exposure therapy
- Attraction and Aversion
- Immune system
- Anticipatory nausea and vomiting
Operant conditioning:- If you do not belong from the psychological background then, there are many chances that you are not aware of this incredible phenomenon.
Ever saw those parrots who are reciting the same words on their trainer commands or just answering the questions their trainers are asking from them, Yea thought it right this training or maybe you’ll call it magic is completely based on classical conditioning.