From the first day you were born to the last day of your life, we have been constantly learning. But have you ever asked or thought in the direction. In this article, we unveil the process of how does learning happen?
a.) WHY learning is happening or what is the process behind it? I am pretty sure many of you never paid attention to these questions. Here in this series, I am going to explain you the process of learning, that what is the behind the learning like and I am sure after this series many of you are going to figure it out the reasons behind learning. Even simplest of your behavior is influenced by the fear of new things or learning new things.
How Does Learning Happen?
So first of let me introduced you the three very basic models of learning which are:-
- Stimulus-Response model (S-R)
- Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R)
- Response (R)
But before going to deep in the learning let me introduce to some basic terms which we will use in the present and later articles of this series.
Don’t put yourself in too much chaos after reading these 3 technical words they have the same meaning in layman language to
A stimulus is simply an object in your environment that elicits a response. For example. If your are herpetophobia person and saw a lizard around you, this will elicit your response of fear, so here you can say Lizard is the stimulus for your fearful response.
Here organism will depict you, for example, what kind of influencing factors occurs due to your cognitive and emotional activities during the learning.
This has the same meaning as in the English language, the response given by any person when the stimulus is introduced to him or her.
So in this first article of our series, we will talk about the first model of learning the STIMULUS-RESPONSE MODEL
This model as the name implies is concerned strictly with the stimulus and subsequent response of that stimulus. You can also see it as a vending machine like you put a coin inside which is your stimulus and a soda can will come out(Response). So it is based strictly on just a stimulus introduced and the response given by the person. The most classical example of this learning is CLASSICAL CONDITIONING of IVAN PAVLOV
Classical conditioning:- If you are not from the psychology background then there are chances that you are not much aware of this term. Classical conditioning can give you a lot of answers of your unanswered questions that why you developed a certain phobia or it can also help you in overcoming a certain fear. But first, let me explain you the concept of classical conditioning.
Lets start with the classical dog experiment, dogs have their natural response to start salivation when they see food even normal human beings have this reflex too, but during research Ivan Pavlov noticed that, after repeated testing of food and salivation, the dog in the observation began to salivate before the food was presented, such as when they heard the footsteps of the approaching experimenter. So this showed that the dog was showing his natural reflex even for the tone(footsteps).
So what they did here is they introduced a different stimulus other than food and even after that successfully able to elicit a natural response( salivation)
Later in this experiment, they introduced a dog with a bell sound some moments before the food has to be given and the dog starts salivating.
SO before conditioning where the dog was only salivating on the food, when they are presenting them now he starts salivating on a tone after completion of conditioning.
It took a number of attempts and ample amount of time to link the unconditioned response (salivation) and conditioned stimulus(tone). Later when the dog starts salivating on conditioned stimulus (tone), the unconditioned response gets converted into a conditioned response.
APPLICATION OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Pavlov thinks that salvation is just tip of the classical conditioning iceberg and later on he proved right. Conditioning principles help us understand human behavior and their problems in a number of ways.
- Acquiring and overcoming fear
- Albert experiment
- Exposure therapy
- Attraction and Aversion
- Immune system
- Anticipatory nausea and vomiting
Operant conditioning:- If you do not belong from the psychological background then, there are many chances that you are not aware of this incredible phenomenon.
Ever saw those parrots who are reciting the same words on their trainer commands or just answering the questions their trainers are asking from them, Yea thought it right this training or maybe you’ll call it magic is completely based on classical conditioning.
Mind mapping is a wonderful technique to learn, process, remember and visualize any information.
You can learn any information faster than the traditional method of rote learning. It takes less effort and helps you retain efficiently.
Tony Buzan introduced this concept as an alternative to getting a conventional way of scanning information (i.e. from left to right we read the text).
However, this technique was used by Greeks, Leonardo Da Vinci and others in similar forms. Buzan is credited with popularizing the technique.
How mind maps work?
Our mind works as a network of neurons connected to each other transmitting information. You can think of the mind as the Internet.
Our ability to reflect and understand greatly depends on our imagination and ability to create close associations between things we learn.
Mindmaps works on both these aspects reworking brain to better visualize and create close associations with things you learn.
How to make mind maps?
Identify the central topic or most important issue. It becomes your central topic, main idea. For students who are preparing for exams, the chapter which your reading is usually the central topic.
Here as an example, I have used Disasters as a central topic:
In this step, you are addressing why, how and perhaps definitions of the central topic and most relevant information related to it.
In the image below, I have defined what disaster is.
In the third step, you are addressing the modalities/types/variables of the central topic.
Here in the image, there are primarily two types of disasters Natural and Man-made.
In the 4th step, you include suggestions, possibilities or structure of a central topic. You can use other important details to connect to the central topic.
In this step, I have explained mitigation and management.
In the final steps see if you require any examples or events that are associated with your central topic. Also see if any of the details are correlated, if yes, then connect them together.
Here, I have mentioned examples of both natural and man-made disasters. Also, I have connected drought to both Man-made and natural disasters category.
This is a generic framework, a step by step process, to guide you on How to make Mind maps if you are confused where to start and what to write where.
You can customize it, as per your need. It’s not fixed or successive, you can start from any step.
Mind maps will help efficiently manage your information and present to you in a way which results in the least effort and interactive way to remember information.